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What role does the knife of CNC machine tool have, how to choose the tool of numerical control machine tool?
With the rapid development of nc machine tools, CNC machine has become an indispensable equipment in industrial production. However, CNC machine tool is the most basic part of nc machine tool. It and tool system and tool management system determine the machining efficiency of CNC machine tool and guarantee the foundation of processing quality. The tool of general numerical control machine tool requires high precision, strong strength, rigid, durable and stable.
If only in the industrial production of advanced CNC machine tools, without associated with advanced tools, tools, systems and management systems, or do not have the rational use of technology, the efficiency of nc machine tool won't get into full play. So be careful when choosing a Carbide milling cutter.
When selecting a tool, the size of the cutter ADAPTS to the surface dimension of the workpiece. For example, in machining convex platforms and grooves, hard alloy milling cutter is used. High speed steel end milling cutter should be used for machining blank surface or roughing hole. The machining of shape and Angle profile should be used for milling cutter with carbide blade.
New product development of hard alloy
China's hard alloy production accounts for about 40% of the world's production, but the sales volume is almost 20%, and the high performance high-end products are less, and the development of such products is the top priority for the development of hard alloy. More likely:
1. Metal ceramic tool hard alloy The composition of metal ceramic tools is usually 20% of WC, and the tool materials have Al2O3, Si3N4 and Sialon. Metal ceramic can be made into indexable blade or integral tool (reamer and milling cutter) for high precision surface. Ceramic cutters are more efficient in machining hardened steel, Incol718 and other difficult materials.
2. Subfine cemented carbide Subfine cemented carbide accounts for nearly 25 percent of the world's hard alloy markets and continues to grow. Due to the development of computer, mobile phone and other products to miniaturization, thanks to the update of better PVD coating technology support. The PVD coating blade is usually in fine cutting, so it is consistent with the development trend of near-net forming process in industry.
3. Gradient hard alloy Gradient cemented carbide (carbide) does not contain release beta is the more popular a subject in recent years, can be divided into C gradient, Co gradient and grain size gradient or is it several forms such as common existence; The gradient can be applied to cutting tools, mining tools and wear-resistant parts. In addition, the gradient cemented carbide may also be used as the matrix of the composite sheet of super hard materials to improve the bonding strength of cemented carbide and diamond/nitride boron interface.
4. Hard alloy for cutting tools In addition, cutting tools are the largest value added in hard alloy products, and 70% of the domestic coating can be transferred to the market.
5, other It also includes super hard alloy, which can be used as mine alloy for fracture toughness and is the main failure reason. The alloy ball teeth of the mesh (double phase) cemented carbide; Non-bonded cemented carbide for optical lens mould, water knife nozzle, etc. Rare earth hard alloys, such as the addition of Re and Cr elements in Co adhesion, improve the discharge machining performance of hard alloy molds.
New energy car golden era small metal valuation "priceless"
What are the tips for asset allocation in the coming golden age of new energy vehicles?
Tianfeng securities said that after the traditional new energy vehicle season in the fourth quarter, production is expected to keep climbing and demand for lithium carbonate is expected to continue to rise. The price of battery-grade lithium carbonate recently rose to 17,100 yuan per ton, and the price is expected to continue to rise as demand continues to rise.
"We are optimistic about the demand for cobalt from the booming new energy vehicle industry, and due to the concentration of cobalt resources and a single supply, cobalt is expected to usher in a turning point in supply and demand. Give the cobalt industry a 'buy' rating for the first time. "Li said.
Haitong securities pointed out that the new energy automobile industry chain is the general direction, including five upstream varieties: lithium, cobalt, copper foil, nickel sulfate, magnetic material. The recent price increase of jiangxi jianfeng has shown that there are many bright spots in the industry.
China's citic securities research institute said that new energy auto production and sales hit a new record high in September, with the two-point policy driving a significant impact, with sales of 700, 000 vehicles expected to be realized throughout the year. Recommendations focus on new energy plate continuous high sentiment for upstream resources products, focus on technological upgrading constantly processing plate opportunities of high value-added products, focus on the supply and demand relationship repair brings to the base metal, especially copper piece of company performance boost.
Specific configuration strategies, ao and her notes, first of all, in the fourth quarter of the new energy products is still grasping the main line of the core upstream resources, new energy automobile production and sales data of a strong rebound, the anode materials manufacturers full production will trigger further trading sentiment of the plates. Overall, the price of the products of cobalt, lithium, ruife and zhengji materials remained high, and enterprise orders were saturated, and the performance of the sector stocks continued to be positive. Second, the supply and demand relationship should be restored to support the high price of copper, and the performance elasticity of the plate is expected to be further catalyzed. Domestic and foreign copper net position close to the previous high, again more inventory continues to decline, affected by the environmental protection and maintenance, output growth is only around 1% in China, the downstream demand stable September import data, strong domestic backwardation high, in the fourth quarter is expected to maintain high price. Finally, the performance of the processing plate is stable and sustainable, which is still the focus of the three quarterly report. Companies with a scale effect on product upgrades and high-end manufacturing are expected to benefit from a shift in the consumption structure.
There will be wear and tear on hard cutting tools. Do you know the reason for the wear?
1. Tool material
The numerical control tool material is the fundamental factor that determines the cutting performance of tool, which has great influence on machining efficiency, processing quality, machining cost and tool durability. The harder the tool material is, the better the abrasion resistance, the higher the hardness, the lower the impact toughness and the brittleness of the material. Hardness and toughness are a pair of contradictions and a key to the tool material. For graphite cutting tools, the ordinary TiAlN coating can be selected for a relatively better toughness, which is a slightly higher cobalt content. For diamond coated graphite cutting tools, it is possible to select a relatively better hardness on the selected materials, which is a slightly lower cobalt content. Nc tool
The geometrical Angle of the cutter The graphite cutter chooses the proper geometrical Angle to help reduce the vibration of the tool. In turn, the graphite workpiece is not easy to collapse.
- 1, rake Angle, when the graphite are processed using the negative rake Angle, cutting tool edge strength, impact resistance and friction performance is good, with the decrease of the absolute value of negative rake Angle, the blade wear area changed little, but overall showed a trend of decrease, with positive rake Angle processing, along with the rising of the rake Angle, cutting tool edge strength is weakened, cause after the blade surface wear. When the cutting resistance is large, the cutting resistance is large, and the cutting vibration is increased, and the tool wear is serious, and the cutting vibration is also larger.
- 2. After the rear Angle, if the rear Angle increases, the cutting strength of the cutting tool is reduced, and the surface area of the blade increases gradually. After the cutter is too large, the cutting vibration is strengthened.
- 3, spiral Angle, spiral Angle is small, the same cutting edges and cut into the graphite artifacts the blade length of the longest and biggest cutting resistance, the cutting tool on cutting force, the largest and thus tool wear, the milling force and the cutting vibration is one of the biggest. When spiral Angle to larger, milling force in the direction of the deviation degree on the surface of the workpiece, cutting impact of graphite material due to its broken intensified, and thus tool wear, the milling force and the cutting vibration is increased. Therefore, the influence of tool Angle change on tool wear, milling force and cutting vibration is generated by the combination of the former Angle, back Angle and spiral Angle, so it is necessary to pay more attention to the selection.
By making a lot of scientific tests on the processing characteristics of graphite materials, PARA tool optimizes the geometrical Angle of the related cutter, thus improving the overall cutting performance of the cutter.
3. The coating of the cutter
Diamond coated cutting tools of high hardness, good wear resistance, and low friction coefficient, the present stage of diamond coating is the best choice of the graphite processing cutting tool, also can reflect graphite tool most superior performance; The advantages of hard alloy cutter for diamond coating are the hardness of natural diamond and the strength and fracture toughness of hard alloy. But in the domestic diamond coating technology is still in its infancy, and the cost of investment is very big, so the diamond coating won't have too big development in the near future, but we can on the basis of common tools, the Angle of the optimization tool, select material, etc, and improve the structure of ordinary coatings, to some extent, can be in the midst of graphite processing applications.
Diamond coated cutting tools Diamond coated tools and ordinary coating tool geometric angles have substaintial distinction, therefore, when designing diamond coated tools, due to the particularity of graphite processing, its geometrical angles can be appropriately enlarge, cutting groove is bigger, also won't reduce the cutting tool edge wear resistance; For ordinary TiAlN coatings, although its wear resistance is larger than that of uncoated cutting tools increase significantly, but compared with diamond coating, geometric angles in the graphite machining it down should be appropriate, in order to increase its wear resistance.
For diamond coating, now many coatings companies in the world have committed a great deal of manpower and material resources to research and development related coating technology, but so far, foreign mature and economic coating company limited to Europe; PARA as a good graphite processing cutting tool, also is one of the world's most advanced coating technology to surface treatment of the cutting tool, to ensure that the processing of life at the same time, guarantee the tool of economic and practical.
Iv. Strengthening of tool cutting edge The tool - edge passivation technology is a problem that is not widely appreciated and is very important. The cutting edge of carbide tool after grinding wheel of diamond grinding wheel has a different microcosmic gap (i.e., micro collapse blade and saws). Graphite high-speed cutting processing cutting tool performance and stability put forward higher requirements, especially the diamond coated tools must pass a knife-edge passivation before coating, to guarantee the robustness and the service life of the coating. The purpose of tool passivation is to solve the defects of the cutting edge of the cutting tool, so as to reduce or eliminate the edge value, and achieve the purpose of smooth and smooth, both sharp and durable.
5. Machining conditions of knives
The selection of proper machining conditions has a considerable impact on the life of the cutter.
- 1. Cutting mode (milling and reverse milling), the cutting vibration of the milling machine is less than the cutting vibration of the reverse milling. The cutting thickness of the cutter is reduced from the maximum to zero, and the cutting edge of the cutter will not be caused by cutting off the cutter. The process system is rigid and the cutting vibration is small. Conventional milling, the cutter cutting thickness increased from zero to maximum, cutter to cut into the early because of cutting thickness thin on the workpiece surface to draw a path, at this time if there are any graphite materials in the hard edge points or residues in chip particles on the surface of the workpiece, will cause the cutting tool of a knife or flutter, therefore, conventional milling cutting vibration;
- 2, blowing air (or vacuum) and dipping edm fluid processing, clear in time the workpiece on the surface of the graphite dust, to reduce the cutter wear, prolong the service life of cutting tool, reducing graphite dust impact on machine screw and guide rail;
- 3. Select suitable high speed and corresponding large quantity.
Review on above points, the tool material, geometrical Angle, coating, the strengthening of the blade and machining conditions, plays a different role in the service life of the cutter, be short of one cannot, complementary to each other. A good graphite cutter should have a smooth graphite powder groove, long service life, deep engraving process, can save processing cost.