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Material for wood cutting tools

The wear, cutting quality and labor productivity of the tool depend on the cutting performance of the material. *** woodworking tools are characterized by high speed and long time to maintain the sharp performance of the cutting. Therefore, woodworking tool material, must possess the necessary hardness and wear resistance, enough strength and toughness, a certain technology (such as welding, heat treatment, machining and grinding performance, etc.). ** the main materials that can meet the requirements at present:

1. Carbon tool steel, carbon steel workers) refers to the carbon content in 0.65 -- 1.35% of the high quality high carbon steel, such as T8, T8A, T10A (2) of alloy tool steel (or the steel) 2. Alloy tool steel in tool steel with Cr, Co, Ni, V, W, Mo, Si and Mn alloy elements such as become, such as 9 crsi, CrWMn, etc. (3) of high speed steel (3) high speed steel, also called feng steel Enhance the W alloy steel, the content of Cr, V, Mo, etc. 4. Cemented carbide By high hardness, refractory metal carbides (WC, TiC), Co, Mo, Ni binder of sintered powder metallurgy products. 5. The cubic boron nitride (CBN) is a new type of super-hard material which is less than diamond and is made of high temperature and high pressure method.

Reasonable selection of tool materials:

1. Carbon tool steel is used for cutting tools such as saws and planer knives. 2. Alloy tool steel is widely used in tungsten carbide woodworking tools, tools used in artificial plate processing and saw blades and circular saw blades. 3. High speed steel (such as W18Cr4V, etc.) used in high-productivity woodworking machine tools such as planer and milling cutter (to avoid the trouble of changing the knife after blunt tool grinding).

Notice the following points

1. Woodworking tools should be used for YG hard alloy with high toughness.

2. There are coarse particles, fine particles and ordinary particles in YG class. 3. The hard alloy is relatively brittle. Only the cutting conditions such as the plate number and the processed material and the feed speed can be used to make a reasonable choice of the wedge Angle to be used for wood processing (see figure 2-6).

4. After correctly selecting the hard alloy plate number, it is also reasonable to choose the model of cemented carbide products, i.e. the shape of the selected products.

How to choose carbide cutting tool

Cemented carbide is a kind of alloy material made of refractory metal and bonded metal through powder metallurgy. Cemented carbide is a kind of alloy material made of refractory metal and bonded metal through powder metallurgy.Cemented carbide with high hardness, wear resistance, good strength and toughness, heat resistance, corrosion resistance and a series of excellent properties, especially its high hardness and wear resistance, even at 500 ℃ temperature basic remains the same, there are still very high hardness at 1000 ℃.Hard alloy are widely used as a cutting tool material, such as turning, milling, planing tool, drilling, boring cutter, etc., used for cutting cast iron, non-ferrous metal, plastic, chemical fiber, graphite, glass, stone and ordinary steel, can also be used for cutting heat resistant steel, stainless steel, high manganese steel, tool steel and other hard processing material.
merit:Cemented carbide with high hardness, strength, abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance, known as the "teeth" industry, used in the manufacture of cutting tool, cutting tool, cobalt and wear-resistant parts, widely used in the military-industrial complex, aviation, machinery, metallurgy, oil drilling, mining tools, electronic communications, construction and other fields, along with the development of downstream industries, carbide increasing market demand. And the future of new and high technology weapons and equipment manufacturing, cutting-edge science and technology progress and the rapid development of nuclear energy, will improve the stability of high technology content and high quality of hard alloy products demand. merit:Cemented carbide with high hardness, strength, abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance, known as the "teeth" industry, used in the manufacture of cutting tool, cutting tool, cobalt and wear-resistant parts, widely used in the military-industrial complex, aviation, machinery, metallurgy, oil drilling, mining tools, electronic communications, construction and other fields, along with the development of downstream industries, carbide increasing market demand. And the future of new and high technology weapons and equipment manufacturing, cutting-edge science and technology progress and the rapid development of nuclear energy, will improve the stability of high technology content and high quality of hard alloy products demand.
Purpose: in 1923, Germany le shi into tungsten carbide powder, adding 10% ~ 20% of cobalt binder, invented new tungsten carbide and cobalt alloy, hardness is second only to diamond, it is hard alloy artificial made the first one in the world. When cutting steel made of this alloy, the blade will quickly wear out and even crack. In 1929, schwarzkov in the United States added a certain amount of tungsten carbide and titanium carbide to the original composition, which improved the performance of cutter cutting steel. This is another achievement in the history of cemented carbide.
Carbide can also be used to make the drilling tools and mining tools, drilling tools, measuring gage, wear-resistant parts, metal abrasive, cylinder liner, precision bearings, nozzle, hardware mold (such as wire drawing die, bolt moulds, nut moulds, as well as a variety of fasteners, mold, excellent performance of cemented carbide gradually replaced the previous steel mold). For nearly two decades, the coated hard alloy has also appeared. Sweden in 1969 the successful development of titanium carbide coating tool, cutting tool matrix is cobalt tungsten titanium carbide or cobalt tungsten carbide, titanium carbide coating on the surface of the thickness of just a few microns, but compared with the same brand of alloy cutting tools, 3 times longer service life, cutting speed increased by 25% ~ 50%. In the 1970s, the fourth-generation coating tools were available to cut materials that were difficult to process. How is hard alloy sintered? A hard alloy is a metal material made of this or a variety of refractory metals such as carbide and adhesives.
Performance characteristics:Carbide welding blade, High hardness (86-93hra, equivalent to 69 ~ 81HRC); Good red hardness (up to 900 ~ 1000 ℃, 60 HRC); Good wear resistance. Hard alloy cutting tool is 4 ~ 7 times faster than high speed steel, and the tool life is 5 ~ 80 times. Manufacturing mold, measuring tools, life is 20 ~ 150 times higher than alloy tool steel. The hard material can be cut about 50HRC. But carbide brittleness is big, cannot undertake machining, hard to make complex shape overall tool, so often made into different shapes of blades, the methods of welding, bonding, mechanical clamping installed on the blade or mold concrete use.
Material properties: hard alloy is the high hardness refractory metal carbide (WC, TiC) micron grade powder A powder metallurgical product which is sintered in a vacuum furnace or hydrogen reduction furnace. Ⅳ, Ⅴ B, B Ⅵ B group metal carbide, nitride, boride, etc, due to the hardness and particularly high melting point, collectively known as tungsten carbide. The structure, characteristics and application of hard - bearing gold are described below. Ⅳ, Ⅴ B, B Ⅵ B group metal and carbon form type metal carbides, due to the carbon atom radius is small, can fill the gap in the metal lattice and retain the original metal lattice form, form interstitial solid solution. In due course, this type of solid solution will continue to dissolve its constituent elements until it is saturated. Therefore, their compositions can be changed in a certain range (e.g. the composition of titanium carbide varies between TiC0.5 ~ TiC), and the chemical formula does not accord with the rules of combination. When dissolved carbon content exceeds a certain limit, such as titanium carbide Ti: C = 1:1), lattice pattern will change, and make the original metal lattice transformed into another form of metal crystal lattice, at this time between the solid solution is called filling between filling compound. Type metal carbides, especially Ⅳ, Ⅴ B, B Ⅵ B group the melting point of metal carbides are above 3273 k, hafnium carbide, tantalum carbide at 4160 k and 4150 k respectively, is the current know the melting point of a material of the highest. Most of the carbide hardness is very big, the microhardness is greater than 1800 kg, was (microhardness is one of the hardness of the representation, usually for hard alloy and hard compound, microhardness, 1800 kg was equivalent to Morse, a diamond hardness of 9). Many carbide is not easy to decompose under high temperature, and its antioxidant capacity is stronger than that of its constituent metals. Titanium carbide is the best thermal stability of all carbide and is a very important metal carbide. However, in an atmosphere of oxidation, all carbides are susceptible to oxidation, which can be said to be a major weakness of carbide.
In addition to carbon atoms, nitrogen atoms and boron atoms can also enter the gap in the metal lattice and form the interstitial solid solution. They are similar in nature to interstitial carbides, which can conduct electricity, heat conduction, high melting point, high hardness and great brittleness. The base body of hard alloy consists of two parts: one is the hardening phase; The other part is bonded metal. Hardening phase is the periodic table of transition metal carbides, such as tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, tantalum carbide, their high hardness, melting point 2000 ℃ or more, some even more than 4000 ℃. In addition, the nitride, boron and silicides of transition metals have similar properties and can serve as hardening phases in hard alloys. The existence of hardening phase determines the high hardness and wear resistance of the alloy.
The requirements for tungsten carbide WC particle size are based on different particle size WC (tungsten carbide). Cemented carbide cutting tools, such as cutting blade, the V - CUT foot machine finishing such as alloy using super fine, fine, fine grain WC, magnesium alloy used in the WC particles, gravity and heavy cutting of the alloy, coarse particle in WC is applied to make the raw material; Mining tools: high rock hardness, large impact load, coarse particle WC, small impact load of rock and small shock load using medium particle WC to make raw materials; Wear-resisting parts: when it emphasizes its wear resistance, anti-pressure and surface finish, it adopts ultra-fine, subfine, fine and medium particle WC as raw materials, and the impact tool adopts middle and coarse particle WC raw materials.
WC theory has a carbon content of 6.128% (50% of atoms). When WC contains more carbon than the theoretical carbon content, there is free carbon (WC+C) in WC. The existence of free carbon in sintering makes the surrounding WC grain grow up, which causes the hard alloy grain to be inhomogeneous. Tungsten carbide generally requires high chemical and carbon (> 6.07%), free carbon (= 0.05%), and the total carbon is determined by the production process and range of hard alloy.
Under normal conditions, the total carbon of WC in the process of vacuum sintering of paraffin process is determined by the combined oxygen content in the pre-sintered blocks. The total carbon content of a single oxygen is 0.75 carbon, i.e., WC total carbon =6.13%+ oxygen content % * 0.75 (assuming that the sintering furnace is neutral atmosphere, in fact, most vacuum furnace is carburized atmosphere, and WC total carbon is less than calculated).
At present, the total carbon content of WC in China is roughly divided into three kinds: the total carbon of WC in the vacuum sintering of paraffin process is 6.18 + 0.03% (the free carbon will increase). The total carbon content of WC was 6.13 + 0.03%. WC total carbon =5.90 + 0.03% for rubber process hydrogen sintering. The above process can be crossed sometimes, so it is determined that WC total carbon should be based on specific conditions.
WC total carbon can be adjusted for different use range, different Co (cobalt) content and different grain size. The low cobalt alloy can be used for the high carbon tungsten carbide and high cobalt alloy can be used for the low carbon tungsten carbide. In conclusion, the specific use demand of hard alloy is different from that of tungsten carbide grain size. The bond metal is usually iron metal, usually cobalt and nickel.
When making hard alloy, the powder particle size is 1 ~ 2 micron, and the purity is very high. The proportion of raw materials in accordance with the provisions of the ingredients, addition of alcohol or other medium wet in wet ball mill grinding, make them fully mixing, crushing, after drying, sieving join such kind of wax or gel forming agent, after drying, sieving mixture system. Then, put the mixture granulating, pressed, heated to close to bond metal melting point (1300 ~ 1500 ℃), the hardening phase bonding metal form a eutectic alloy. After cooling, the hardening phase is distributed in a grid of bonded metals, which are closely linked together to form a solid whole. The hardness of hard alloy depends on the amount of hardening phase and grain size, namely, the higher the hardening phase, the finer the grain, and the harder the hardness. The toughness of hard alloy is determined by the bond metal, the higher the metal content, the stronger the bending strength.
Classification of alloy
Tungsten and cobalt carbide
WC tools are mainly composed of tungsten carbide (WC) and binder cobalt (Co). Its brand name is made up of "YG" (" hard, cobalt ") and an average percentage of cobalt. For example, the YG8, which means the average WCo=8 percent, the rest is tungsten and cobalt hard alloys for tungsten carbide. Generally, tungsten and cobalt alloys are mainly used for carbide cutting tools, molds and mineral products. Carbide cutting tools.
Tungsten-titanium cobalt hard alloy
The main components are tungsten carbide, titanium carbide (TiC) and cobalt. Its brand name is composed of "YT" (" hard, titanium ") and the average content of carbon titanium. For example, YT15, which means average TiC= 15%, the rest is tungsten and cobalt carbide with tungsten and cobalt content.
Tungsten titanium tantalum (niobium) alloy
TIC tool The main components are tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, tantalum carbide (or carbonized niobium) and cobalt. This kind of hard alloy is also called universal hard alloy or universal cemented carbide.
Its brand name is made up of "YW" (" hard "and" ten thousand ") with serial number, such as YW1. Shape classification Spherical hard alloy ball is mainly composed of carbide (WC, TiC) micron-scale powder of refractory metals. Commonly used cemented carbide balls main points: YG6 carbide ball. YG6x cemented carbide balls. YG8 cemented carbide balls. YG13 cemented carbide balls. YG20 hard alloy ball. YN6 cemented carbide balls. YN9 cemented carbide balls. YN12 cemented carbide balls. YT5 cemented carbide balls. YT15 cemented carbide balls.
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The carbide rod is characterized by stable mechanical properties, easy to weld, high abrasion resistance and high impact resistance. Advantages: 1. Good wear resistance; 2. Good corrosion resistance; 3. High toughness; 4. Extrusion and HIP sintering. Application: hard alloy rod is mainly used for drill, end milling cutter and reamer. It can also be used for cutting, stamping and measuring tools. It is used in papermaking, packaging, printing and non-ferrous metal processing industries. In addition, it is widely used for machining high speed steel cutting tools, carbide milling cutter, carbide cutting tools, cutting tools of NAS, air tools, carbide drill, milling cutter core bit, high speed steel, taperd milling cutter, the metric system of milling cutter, the micro end milling cutter, hinge, electronic tools, ladder drill, metal cutting saw, double margin drill, a gun, Angle cutter, tungsten carbide rotary file, etc.
Carbide rods can not only be used for cutting and drilling tools (such as micrometers, twiste drill, drill vertical index of mining tools), also can be used as input pin, all kinds of roll wear parts and structural material to use. In addition, it can be widely used in many fields, such as machinery, chemicals, petroleum, metallurgy, electronics and defense industries. Plate hard alloy plate, with good durability and impact resistance, can be used in hardware and standard stamping dies. Hard alloy plate is widely used in electronic industry, motor rotor, stator, LED wire frame, EI silicon steel sheet, etc. All hard alloy blocks must be checked strictly and only those without any damage, such as pores, bubbles, cracks and so on. The preparation of hard alloy is to mix tungsten carbide and cobalt with a certain proportion, pressure into various shapes, and then semi-sintered. This sintering process is usually carried out in a vacuum furnace. Put it in a vacuum furnace and finish the sintering, at which point the temperature is between 1, 300 and 1, 500 degrees Celsius. Carbide sintering molding powder is pressed into blank, and then into the sintering furnace heated to a certain temperature, sintering temperature, and maintain a certain amount of time, heat preservation time, and then cooled down, to get the required performance of cemented carbide materials.
The sintering process can be divided into four basic stages:
1. Removal of the forming agent and pre-combustion phase, the sintering body changes as follows:
Early removal of forming agent, sintering with the increase of temperature, molding agent gradually break down, or vaporization, out of the sintered body, at the same time, forming agent was more or less to increase carbon sintered body, increases the amount of carbon will vary depending on the type, quantity and sintering process of the forming agent of change. The oxide of the powder surface is reduced, and in the sintering temperature, the hydrogen can reduce the oxide of cobalt and tungsten. If the vacuum deforms the forming agent and sintering, the carbon oxygen reaction is not strong. The contact stress between the powder particles gradually eliminated, and the bonding metal powder began to produce the response and recrystallization. The surface diffusion began to occur, and the strength of the pressure block increased.
2: solid phase sintering stage (800 ℃ -- eutectic temperature)
In the temperature of the liquid phase before the occurrence of the liquid phase, in addition to the continuous process of the previous stage, the solid contrast should be increased, the plastic flow strengthened, and the sintering body appeared to contract significantly.
3: liquid phase sintering phase (eutectic temperature - sintering temperature)
When the sinter appears in the liquid phase, the contraction is completed quickly, then the crystallization changes and the basic structure and structure of the alloy are formed.
4: cooling stage (sintering temperature - room temperature)
At this stage, the organization of the alloy composition and phase change with the different cooling condition and produce some, can make use of this characteristic, the hard alloy heat treatment to improve its physical and mechanical properties.
Grade:
Country
ISO CODE
P10
P20
P30
M10
M20
K10
K15
K20
K30
CHA
YT15
YT14
YT5
YW1
YW2
YG6A
YG6
YG6
YG8
YG6X
YG8N
YG8N
YC10
YC20.1
YC30
YW3
YW3
YM051
YDS15
YD20
YS2
CN15*
CN25*
YS25
YW4
YM20
YD15
SD15
CA25*
(YG10HT)
YB01*
YB01*
YS30
YB03*
YB03*
YD10.1
CA15*
CN26*
YL10.2
YB02*
YB02*
CN35*
YD10.2
CN16*
YB03*
YB03*
YB03*
SC30
CA15*
YB03*
YB435*
YB425*
YB435*
YB01*
CN16*
YB435*
YB3015*
YB120*
YB425*
YB02*
YB03*
YB3015*
YL10.1
YB120*
YB03*
YB435*
YL10.1
YL10.2
YB435*
YB3015*
YC25
YC25
YB425*
YL10.1
YC25
YT715
YT715
YT535
YT712
YT758
YT726
YG813
YG813
YG640
YT712
YT712
ZC03*
YT707
YT726
YG813
YG532
YG532
YG546
YT707
YT798
ZC04*
YT767
YT767
YG532
ZC01*
ZC01*
ZC08*
YT758
YT758
ZC07*
YG643
YG813
YG643
ZC02*
ZC02*
ZK30
ZC01*
ZC01*
ZC08*
ZC02*
YG532
ZC01*
ZC03*
ZC03*
ZC02*
ZC02*
ZP30
ZC04*
ZC02*
ZC02*
ZC04*
ZC04*
ZC03*
ZC03*
ZC05*
ZC04*
ZC03*
ZC06*
ZC06*
ZC04*
ZC04*
ZC07*
ZC05*
ZC04*
ZC08*
ZC08*
ZC05*
ZC05*
ZM10
ZC07*
ZC06*
ZK20
ZC06*
ZC06*
YN510N+
YN510*
ZC07*
YN510N*
ZC08*
ZP01+
YN520N+
YD10
YD15
YTT
YTN
TTX
TTM
TTM
AT15
AT15
THM
THM
THM
THR
TTR
USA
495
499
434
548
548
AA
A
B
350
370
370
320
370
905
883
883
44A
860
KC740*
KC710*
KC850*
KC910*
K313
K68
K68
KC250*
K1
VC165
VC165
VC55
VC2
VC2
VC2
VC2
VC2
VC1
VC7
VC125
VC5
VC27
VC27
VC28
VC28
VC28
VC101
VC5
VC5
V99*
VN5*
VC55
VN2*
VN2*
VC1
VN5*
VN5*
VN5*
V91*
V91*
V91*
V90*
V90*
V99*
V99*
SE
GC415*
GC415*
GC415*
GC415*
GC415*
H1P
H1P
H20
H10F
GC425*
GC425*
GC425*
GC425*
GC3015*
GC3015*
GC3015*
CT515+
GC435*
GC435*
H10
GC415*
H10F GC415*
S1P
GC015*
GC015*
GC415*
GC315*
GC315*
S10T
GC225*
GC225*
GC315*
GC435*
GC435*
GC015*
GC1025*
GC1025*
GC435*
H13A
H13A
GC225*
S30T
S30T
H13A
GC1025*
GC135*
GC235*
S1F
S2
S4
SU41
H13
HX
HX
HX
JPN
ST10E
ST20E
ST30E
U10E
U2
H1
CG10
G2
G3
ST10P
CG11
G10E
STi10
STi20
STi30
UTi10
UTi20
HTi10
HTi10T
HTi20
HTi30
STi10T
UTi20T
HTi20T
TX10
TX20
TX30
TU10
TU20
TH10
T811*
G2
G3
TX10S
UX25
UX30
T822*
UX25
G1F
T802*
G2F
T813*
TX10D
N308+
N350+
T802*
T823*
T821*
T823*
T802*
N302+
X407+
T813*
T823*
T803*
T801*
T803*
T823*
X407+
T822*
T553*
T803*
T813*
T811*
T813*
T803*
T822*
T802*
T370*
T260*
T260*
T802*
T530*
T813*
T802*
T823*
T823*
T221*
T530*
T823*
T803*
T803*
T370*
T221*
T803*
T813*
T813*
T370*
T813*
T553*
T530*
T370*
T221*
T370*
DE
TTX
TTS
TTS
AT15
AT15
HK15*
THM
THM
THR
TK15*
TK15*
TTR
AT10
TK15*
HK15*
HK15*
HK15*
TN25*
TN25*
TTM
HK15*
HK15*
TN35*
TK15*
TN25*
TN25*
TN35*
TN35*
WP1
WP1
WP3
WK1
WK1
WK1
WK1
WHN33*
WTN43*
WHN53*
WTN33*
WTN43*
CP1*
CP1*
CP3*
CM2
CM3
CP1
CP1
CP3*
CP3*
CM2*
CM3
CP3
CP3
CM2*
CM2*
CM3*
KM1
CM2
CM2
CM3*
CM3*
CF2*
CF3
KM1
CM3
P10
P20
CF3
KM1
CF2*
CF2*
CF3
The corresponding properties of cemented carbides and recommended application.
Hard alloy plate number: YG3X density g/cm3:14.6-15.2 bending strength not less than N/cm2:1320 hardness not lower than HRA: 92
It is often used for high speed precision machining of small cutting sections of steel alloy steel alloy steel and alloy steel. Equivalent to ISO: K01
Hard alloy plate number: YG6A density g/cm3:14.6-15.0 anti-bending strength not less than N/cm2:1370 hardness not lower than HRA: 91.5
Common use: suitable for hard cast iron, semi-finishing of nonferrous metals and alloys. Also suitable for semi-finishing and finishing of high manganese steel, quenching steel and alloy steel. Equivalent to ISO: K05
Hard alloy plate no. :YG6X density g/cm3:14.6-15.0 bending strength not less than N/cm2:1420 hardness not lower than HRA: 91
It is often used in this way: it is proved that the alloy processing cold hard alloy cast iron and heat-resistant alloy steel can have good effect and suitable for ordinary cast iron. Equivalent to ISO: K10
Hard alloy number: YK15 density g/cm3:14.2-14.6 bending strength not less than N/cm2:2100 hardness not lower than HRA: 91
Common sight: suitable for machining of whole alloy drill, milling, hinge and other cutting tools. It has high abrasion resistance and toughness. Equivalent to ISO: K20
Hard alloy plate number: YG6 density g/cm3:14.5-14.9 anti-bending strength not less than N/cm2:1380 hardness not lower than HRA: 89
Common use: suitable for medium cutting speed of cast iron, non-ferrous metal and alloy non-metallic materials. Equivalent to ISO: K20
Hard alloy plate no. :YG6X-1 density g/cm3:14.6-15.0 bending strength not less than N/cm2:1500 hardness not lower than HRA: 90
Frequently used road: suitable for cast iron, non-ferrous metal and alloy non-metallic materials for continuous cutting, semi-fine car, fine car, Small section fine car, coarse thread, continuous section semi-fine milling and fine milling, hole thick expansion and fine expansion. Equivalent to ISO: K20
Hard alloy plate number: YG8N density g/cm3:14.5-14.8 resistance bending strength not less than N/cm2:2000 hardness not lower than HRA: 90
It is often used for high-speed cutting of cast iron, white cast iron, ductile iron and chromium, nickel stainless steel and other alloy materials. Is ISO: K30
Hard alloy plate number: YG8 density g/cm3:14.5-14.9 anti-bending strength not less than N/cm2:1600 hardness not lower than HRA: 89.5
Common use: suitable for cast iron, non-ferrous metal and alloy and non-metal materials, rough sections and discontinuous cutting, Rough planing, rough milling, common hole and deep hole drilling, reaming. Equivalent to ISO: K30
Hard alloy number: YG10X density g/cm3:14.3-14.7 bending strength not less than N/cm2:2200 hardness not lower than HRA: 89.5
Common use: suitable for manufacturing fine diameter micro drill, vertical milling cutter, rotary file, etc. Equivalent to ISO: K35
Hard alloy number: YS2T density g/cm3:14.4-14.6 bending strength not less than N/cm2:2200 hardness not lower than HRA: 91.5
Frequently used road: ultrafine granule alloy, suitable for low speed coarse car, milling heat-resistant alloy and titanium alloy, cutting knife and tap, saw blade milling cutter. Equivalent to ISO: K30
Hard alloy plate number: YL10.1 density g/cm3:14.9 bending strength not less than N/cm2:1900 hardness not lower than HRA: 91.5
Common sight: good wear resistance and flexural strength.
Hard alloy plate number: YL10.2 density g/cm3:14.5 bending strength not less than N/cm2:2200 hardness not lower than HRA: 91.5
Common sight: good wear resistance and flexural strength.
Hard alloy number: YG15 density g/cm3:13.9-14.2 bending strength not less than N/cm2:2100 hardness not lower than HRA: 87
Often used: suitable for high compression steel rod and steel tube drawing, working under greater stress, punching, punching and stamping tools. Hard alloy plate number: YG20 density g/cm3:13.4-13.7 anti-bending strength not less than N/cm2:2500 hardness not lower than HRA: 85
Common use: suitable for stamping die, such as stamping watch parts, musical instrument spring etc. The moulds of the battery shell and the tooth paste; Small size steel ball, screw, nut and other stamping die; The pressure plate of the hot rolled twist drill. Hard alloy plate number: TG20C density g/cm3:13.4-13.7 anti-bending strength not less than N/cm2:2200 hardness not lower than HRA: 82
Common sight: cold heading, cold shock and cold pressing die for standard parts, bearings and tools. The warhead has a stamping die for the shell. Hard alloy plate no. :YT15 density g/cm3:11.07-11.7 the bending strength is no less than N/cm2:1150 hardness not lower than HRA: 91
Common use: suitable for carbon steel and alloy steel processing, continuous cutting of coarse, half essence and car models, continuous cutting of small section car, for the essence of milling and milling, rough wisdom and essence of expanding hole. Equivalent to ISO: P10
Hard alloy number: YT14 density g/cm3:11.2-12.0 resistance to bending strength not less than N/cm2:1270 hardness not lower than HRA: 90.5
Common use: is suitable in carbon steel and alloy steel processing, uneven section and continuous cutting thick car, intermittent cutting half essence car and car, continuous section mill roughly, cast hole reaming and rough wisdom. Equivalent to ISO: P20
Hard alloy plate number: YT5 density g/cm3:12.5-13.2 bending strength not less than N/cm2:1430 hardness not lower than HRA: 89.5
Common use: suitable for carbon steel and alloy steel (including steel forging, stamping and casting skin) processing uneven cross section with a discontinuous cutting plane, half fine, coarse, coarse car discontinuous surface rough milling and drilling. Equivalent to ISO: P30
Hard alloy number: YS25 density g/cm3:12.8-13.2 bending strength not less than N/cm2:2000 hardness not lower than HRA: 91
Equivalent to ISO: P20 P40
Hard alloy number: YS30 density g/cm3:12.45 flexural strength not less than N/cm2:1800 hardness not lower than HRA: 91
Common sight: ultrafine granule alloy which is suitable for high efficiency milling of various kinds of steel, especially alloy steel. Equivalent to ISO: P25 P30
Hardness testing
Detection method
Hardness testing of hard alloy is mainly used to test HRA hardness. PHR series portable rockwell hardness tester is very suitable for testing hard alloy hardness. The instrument weight precision is the same as the desktop rockwell hardness tester. It is very convenient to use and carry.
Cemented carbide is a kind of metal, through hardness test can reflect carbide materials in different chemical composition, structure and mechanical properties under the condition of the heat treatment process, so the hardness test is widely used in the performance of cemented carbide inspection, supervision the correctness of the heat treatment process and new material research. feature
It is non-destructive testing, and the test method is simple. The hardness of hard alloy is highly adaptable to the shape and size of the specimen, and the test efficiency is high. In addition, there is a correspondence between hardness of hard alloy material and other physical properties. For example, hard alloy hardness test and tensile test are basically tests for metal resistance to plastic deformation. Both of these tests are to some extent the characteristics of metal similarity. Therefore, the test results are completely comparable to each other. The hard alloy tensile test equipment is large and complex, the test sample is prepared, the test efficiency is low, and for many metal materials, there is a test of the scale of hardness test and tensile test. Therefore, in testing the mechanical properties of cemented carbide materials, people are increasingly using hardness tests, and less tensile tests are used.
tools
Hardness of hard alloy is usually measured by rockwell hardness HRA scale or vickers hardness tester. In practice, the hardness of HRA is mainly tested by rockwell hardness tester. PHR series portable rockwell hardness tester is very suitable for testing hard alloy hardness. The instrument weighs just 0.7 kg, the same accuracy as a desktop rockwell. In cemented carbide hardness measurement, the star ferry PHR series portable rockwell hardness tester can test the thickness or hard alloy workpiece under 50 mm in diameter, can test the small diameter to 2.0 mm hard alloy workpiece, can test the inner diameter is less than 30 mm tubular hard alloy workpiece. It can also be used in production site, sales site or material warehouse. This instrument is used to test hard alloy workpiece for easy, fast and non-destructive, and can be tested for hard alloy workpieces of finished products or semi-finished products.
Magnetic saturation value
The factors affecting the relative magnetic saturation of cemented carbide alloys mainly include the following six factors:
1. WC in hard alloy is excessive in total carbon.
2. The amount of oxygen in the mixture (including the pressure block) is excessive.
3. Change of carbon content in hydrogen dewaxing and preburning.
4. Change of carbon content in vacuum dewaxing and preburning.
5. Carbon change in hydrogen sintering process.
6. Carbon change in the vacuum sintering process of hard alloy.
The market situation
According to data provided by the China association of tungsten carbide branch, according to the 2011 national more than 300 cemented carbide production enterprises, has more than 30 professional scientific research institutes, the industry workers, more than 25000 people. By 2011, with 100000 t/a capacity of tungsten concentrate, 180000 t/a of tungsten and tungsten acid salt production capacity, production capacity of 62000 t/a tungsten carbide, carbide production capacity of 38000 t/a, Co and Ni, Ta, Nb, Ti matching supply ability.
In 2011 China's cemented carbide production of 2011 tons, cemented carbide industry sales income is 20.9 billion yuan, carbide exports nearly 5000 tons, export more than $360 million, hard alloy deep-processing products output reached 6600 tons, about a third of the alloy production. The production of hard alloy products is basically complete, with more than 40,000 specifications and models, and the production and varieties can basically meet the needs of China's various economic sectors.
The main problem of the hard alloy industry in China is that the enterprise is small and the industry concentration is not high. According to incomplete statistics, the average annual output of 199 hard alloy enterprises is 176 tons, with an average annual output of only 86 tons. There are only four enterprises producing more than 1,000 tons in a year. The second is the lack of investment in science and technology, lack of high-end technical talents, and weak technical research and development capabilities. China's hard alloy industry spends less than 3 percent of its sales revenue on science and technology, its r&d level is low, and its original core technologies are less productive. Third, the product quality level is low, the product structure needs to be adjusted. China's cemented carbide production accounts for more than 40% of world output, but the carbide sales income is less than 20% of the world, mainly due to the high performance super fine alloy coating, high precision, high performance grinding blade, ultra hard tool materials, complex, precision carbide nc cutter large products less high value-added products production, deep processing and varieties of form a complete set is not complete.
With the rapid expansion of China's auto industry, the demand for cutting tools for auto parts and parts has been increasing, and the demand for hard alloys in China's steel, transportation, construction and other fields has become more and more vigorous. In the strategic picture of foreign cemented carbide multinational, the Chinese market has quietly become the main character in supporting roles.
By the end of the 12th five-year plan period, China's hard alloy production reached 30,000 tons, sales revenue reached 30 billion yuan, and the production of deep processing products accounted for more than 40 percent of the total amount of cemented carbide. Exports will double in the 11th five-year plan to more than $1 billion. Hard alloy will be developed in the direction of deep processing and tools. The direction of superfine, ultra crude and coated composite structure is developed. Development of circular economy and energy conservation and environmental protection; The development of miniaturization and miniaturization.
High-end market
Tool enterprises in China by constantly learning and strategic planning, has in the market occupies the half, but the enterprise in the process of development and highlight several fatal problems, such as inadequate recognition, improper handling, which will seriously affect the development of enterprise.
At present, hard alloy cutting tools have accounted for 70% of cutting tool type in developed countries. High-speed steel knives are shrinking at a rate of 1% to 2% a year, down to less than 30%. At the same time, cemented carbide cutting tools in our country has become the main tool processing enterprise, is widely used in automobile and parts manufacturing, mold manufacturing, aerospace, and other areas of the heavy industry, but our tool enterprises blindly, mass production of high-speed steel knife and some low standard tool, completely without considering the market saturation and the enterprise needed, finally has a high-tech and high value-added high-end cutting tools in the market "given" to foreign companies.
Have data show that the tool has annual sales of about 14.5 billion yuan, the carbide cutting tools account for less than 25%, of the carbide cutting tools for domestic manufacturing has accounted for more than 50% of the cutting tool, the blind production has serious can't satisfy the domestic manufacturing industry growing demand for carbide cutting tools, forming the high-end market in the vacuum state, eventually dominated by foreign companies.
In 2007, 4,500 tons of the 1.65 million tons of cemented carbide produced in our country were used for cutting tool production, which is the same number as Japan. But the cost of making a knife is only $800 million, far less than the $2.5 billion in Japan, which fully demonstrates that there is still a considerable gap between the overall production level of the domestic carbide efficient cutting tools and the foreign countries. Therefore, in the premise that domestic enterprises cannot meet the demand of the market, the demand of manufacturing industry has to rely on a lot of imports to solve. According to the data, the annual growth rate of the major foreign enterprises in the high-end cutting tools market in China has exceeded the annual growth rate of the domestic tools.
Development trend
Hard alloy milling cutter, due to China's active and prudent macroeconomic policies, the national economy is growing rapidly, and the demand for hard alloy is increasing rapidly. While the demand for cemented carbide is increasing, production is also increasing, from 1.45 million tons in 2006 to 24,000 tons in 2011, with annual compound growth of 10.60 percent.
example
South Korean YesTool company launched "KRUZ" carbide machine clamp hole processing tool, the grain size of hard phase were 0.2 + 0.5 + 0.8 u m high hybrid matrix of cobalt (13%) of the ultrafine grain size, the strength and hardness of the tool base material has a larger increase, with close to the integrated intensity of drill machine clip blade geometry structure and the way of clamping and original drilling design and performance of titanium nitride (TiN) and nitrogen (TiAlN) aluminum, titanium nanometer physical and coating (PVD), not only suitable for soft to hard workpieces, even for the special material of workpieces, extremely hard can show excellent cutting performance.
  Sweden sandvik coromant company (SandvikCoromant) new steel turning brand GC4225, GC4235, adopted the ultrafine grain gradient cemented carbide substrates, titanium carbide with nitrogen medium temperature (MT - CVD) and chemical coating of fine crystal column a - Al2O3 chemical coating on the surface of the surface stress is adopted to eliminate the post-processing technology, through shot peening treatment to remove the tensile stress in the rake face of CVD coating surface (TiN), the tensile stress in the exposed surface of Al2O3 fell by 40%, a 20% drop in the inner coating stress, significantly improve the blade blade performance micro crack and spalling resistance, in improving the reliability of the blade integrity and also improve the surface of the coating, reduce the blade between the chip and cohesiveness. GC4225 can cover 80% of the application fields from rough machining to finishing processing. Compared with general P25 blades, the life of cutter can be increased by 60% and production efficiency is increased by 33%, which is the preferred brand for steel processing. Zhuzhou diamond cutting tools co., LTD. After two years ago for cast iron processed YBD series kingbox brand, new steel used for processing the second generation of the kingbox series brand - rich cobalt YBC152 and YBC252 also adopted the surface of gradient cemented carbide substrate material, with a thick layer of fibrous TiCN and fine grained Al2O3 CVD coating, with a strong ability to resist plastic deformation and blade intensity, especially suitable for the high speed machining of steel. In the same cutting condition, the new black gold plate blade can increase the cutting speed by more than 25 %. At the same cutting speed, the tool life can be increased by more than 30 %. On this exhibition with rich cobalt on the surface of gradient cemented carbide substrate material new brands are: the United States Kennametal company gm material brand KU30T, Valenite processing stainless steel nameplate VP5535, Israel's ISCAR company is suitable for high speed machining modified Al2O3MT - CVD composite coating "a - TEC" series (such as: IC9150 IC9250 IC9350) brand, etc.
  A small number of elements can be added in hard alloy to strengthen the hard phase and bonding phase of the material, purify the grain boundary and significantly improve the flexural strength and impact toughness of the materials. Japan's sumitomo electric cemented carbide co., LTD launched the ACE series coating brand (AC700G AC2000 AC3000), adopted and zirconium (Zr) of cemented carbide substrate material, make the new brand red hardness of the substrate material increased significantly. Hitachi tool technology co., new brand new HG series coating (HG8010, HG8025) has adopted the so-called "triple zirconium effect" of the CVD coating technology, the "first zirconium effect" was added in the cemented carbide substrate material of zirconium (Zr) elements, in order to improve the high temperature deformation resistance of matrix; "The second zirconium effect" is to replace the usual mt-ticn coating with a fine grained zirconium (Zr) coating, which improves the antioxidant properties of the coating. The "third zirconium" coating is coated with a layer of white zirconium (Zr) coating on the surface of the coating to improve the lubrication, heat resistance and anti-peeling properties of the cutter's surface. This new coating brand blade has good heat resistance and is especially suitable for high efficiency machining. Compared with traditional blade, it can improve machining efficiency by 150% and reduce processing cost by 20-30%.
  Ultra-fine grain cemented carbide has been widely used. New brand in addition to the above several companies adopted the ultra-fine grain cemented carbide substrate, Kennametal launch of the new brand KC5525, KC5510 also USES the grain refinement, high cobalt cemented carbide substrates with cobalt content amounted to 10% of super fine grains cemented carbide substrates, TiAlNPVD coating with high al content, make during intermittent cutting tool of high toughness of the edge at the same time, but also has strong ability to thermal deformation. ISCAR company launched for solid carbide end mill "AL - TEC" coating series (such as: IC900 IC903 IC908, IC910, etc.) brand, also used the ultra-fine grain cemented carbide substrates, match with high aluminum content TiAlN (PVD) coating, in the milling processing hardness up to 60 ~ 62 HRC hardened steel, compared with the original IC903 brand, tool life by 150%. Valenite VP1595 brand company for cast iron of high speed turning processing, is also on the ultra-fine grain cemented carbide substrate, using MT - 18 microns thick CVD coated TiCN/Al2O3 / TiC coating, after the blade surface is coated with a layer of gray TiC, in order to observe tool wear and tear on edge and blade transposition, the brand during rough nodular cast iron, machining efficiency than other K05 ~ k10/19 dated brand increased by 50%.
The evolution of
Can be seen from the new brand, with the improvement and improve the performance of substrate material, cutting tool coating technology has obtained the swift and violent development, more medium temperature chemical coating, column a - Al2O3 chemical coating, high-performance coatings, the nanostructure coating physical coating, new atoms, yellow 3 oxidation 2 aluminium zirconium chemical coating, white coating, high aluminum content TiAlN coatings, TiSiN coatings, CrSiN coating, AlCrSiN coating, such as large TiBON coating new coating showed a trend of diversification and seriation, make new brand carbide material emerge in endlessly, greatly improving the cutting performance of cemented carbide cutting tools.
Swedish mountain (SECO) company since two years ago launched TP1000, TP2000, TP3000 three high-performance ISO - P class carbide coating brand, new launched a so-called "new industry standard" TP2500 universal ISO - P class carbide coating new brand, it is high in the mountains company a new generation of Triple - Zero matrix material, adopted called DurAtomic coating technology and the formation of a new carbide coating. A -Al2O3 of DurAtomic coating is grown from atoms and compared with the a-al2o3 generated by the usual CVD coating, DurAtomic coating has higher wear resistance and toughness. TP2500 is designed to be the preferred brand of ordinary steel pieces (ISOP15 ~ P30), which can also be used as supplementary card number of isomer 20 and ISOK30. According to the company's technical personnel, the new TP2500 blades can improve the processing efficiency by more than 50% and improve the life of the cutter by over 300%.
Germany blue signs sharp metal processing technology group times (ending - BOEHLERIT) the company using the medium temperature chemical coating technology developed a "yellow" alumina composite coating technology, combined with the company's newly developed Durotec dentate transition layer technology, make the yellow alumina coating and transition layer with excellent adhesiveness between at the same time, but also has good heat resistance, and launched SteeltecLC215K and LC225K series blade number. SteeltecLC215K can achieve the cutting speed of over 300m/min when cutting steel, and the blade life is 30% higher than that of other blades. However, SteeltecLC225K has further improved the toughness of the blade on the basis of LC215K, so that the service life of the blade has been extended by 30% on the original basis.
The new coating technology of Nanocoating technology has been developed rapidly. The grain size of the coating material is generally below 100nm and has good cutting performance. At this exhibition, domestic and foreign companies all have nano-structured coating new brand launch. Japan's sumitomo electric coating cemented carbide co., LTD launched super ZX brand (ACP200 ACP300 ACK300 and AC530U), using the overlapping of the total number of 1000 layers of ultra-thin TiAlN and AlCrN nano-scale coatings, and the thickness of each layer is about 10 nanometers, greatly improve the hardness and oxidation resistance of the coating surface. Compared with the traditional TiAlN coating, super ZX coating hardness increased by 40%, began to oxidation also promoted a temperature of 200 ℃, and 1.5 times so as to improve the machining efficiency of cutting tools; Under the same cutting condition, it can improve the cutter life twice. Come up with a new brand of nanostructure coating and Japan Hitachi co., LTD, the company's new nano coating ATH, ACS series brand from the usual TiAlN (PVD) coating brand, has higher hardness and oxidation resistance, oxidation resistance temperature of 1100 ℃, the microhardness of 3600 hv, can be applied to the pre hardened steel to the high speed dry cutting hardened steel. Zhuzhou diamond cutting tools co., LTD., the new nano structure nc - TiAlN coatings new brand (YBG102 YBG202 YBG302 and YBG203) is in the ultra-fine grain cemented carbide substrate coated on the surface of 2 ~ 4 microns nano TiAlN, covers the series brand steel, stainless steel, cast iron, heat-resistant alloys, high temperature alloy, titanium alloy most of materials such as turning and milling machining, has extensive adaptability.
extend
By grain refinement in coating technology to improve surface finish coating, the coating surface is smooth, in order to improve the coated tools of friction resistance, anti caking capacity is a direction of development of coating technology. Japan's mitsubishi composite materials co., LTD launched the efficient processing of steel patented technology UC6110 super coating cemented carbide grades, rake face of citing inhibited the growth of the crystal fine to nanoscale TiCN and nanoscale inhibited the growth of the crystalline nanostructures composed of 3 oxidation 2 aluminium CVD coating, high toughness and strong wear resistance, the surface is a layer of yellow special Ti metal compounds, the coating surface smoothing. The rear edge is a black super-smooth coating to ensure the stability of tool wear. Sumitomo electric carbide corporation brand new super FF coating (AC410K AC610M AC630M ACP100 ACK200), is on the special cemented carbide substrates, TiCN coating ultrafine grain, improve the adhesion strength of the coating and substrate, and then on the coated superfine super smoothing FF aluminum membrane, the surface hardness is increased by 30%, the surface roughness was reduced by 50%, compared with the usual material, can improve the machining efficiency is 1.5 times, improve the knives' service life more than 2 times.
From the show to launch new brands of cemented carbide cutting tool materials, you can see that the current brand carbide cutting tool materials is developing in the direction of the two opposite, on the one hand, universal brand is more and more wide, more and more strong commonality. On the other hand, the special-purpose brand is becoming more and more pertinence, which is more suitable for the processing materials and cutting conditions, thus achieving the aim of improving cutting efficiency. For example, the new KU series (KU10T, KU25T, KU30T), launched by the American Kennametal company, has a wide range of universality. Among them, KU10T and KU25T adopt the rigid alloy matrix with high toughness and high wear resistance, and with TiN+TiAlN composite PVD coating with high aluminum content. However, KU30T adopts the highly flexible cobalt layer gradient cemented carbide substrate with TiN+TiCN+TiN composite CVD coating. The new KU serial number can be widely used in the turning, boring, cutting, cutting and thread machining of steel, stainless steel, cast iron, non-titanium alloy, high temperature alloy and hard material. The company's new KC5510 and KC5525 is specially designed for efficient processing and high temperature alloy grades, grain refining high cobalt cemented carbide substrates, match the TiAlNPVD coating with high performance, make the blade with a strong thermal deformation resistance, higher than that of other PVD coated tools can be more than twice as high cutting speed. The T6000 series brand (T6020, T6030) introduced by Japan's yaloy super hard tool co., LTD. Is the CVD number specially designed for the development of stainless steel. ISCAR company launched special in high speed milling of grey cast iron and nodular cast iron DO - TEC coating brand (DT7150), adopted the Al2O3 - MTCVD TiAlNPVD outer coating composite coating technology, coating has a very high resistance to wear and spalling resistance.
It can be seen from this exhibition that the performance of diamond CVD coating tools has been further improved, and the products are covered with indexable cutting tools and solid carbide cutting tools. Xiamen jinlu special materials co., LTD. Has exhibited the newly developed "green frost" series of ultrafine crystal diamond coating endmill. Compared with the usual diamond coating, the "green frost" series diamond coating is superfine crystallization, the average particle size is <1 mu m, the coating surface is smoother, and the tool life can be increased by more than 20 times. Japan OSG exhibited company is also suitable for graphite electrode coating and copper electrode processing superfine grain crystal diamond cutter, crystal grain size is 1 mu m, coating thickness 6 ~ 20 microns, further sharp knife blade, reduce cutting the bonding, reduces the workpiece surface roughness. The SGS tool company has introduced AmorphousDiamond, an amorphous diamond coating, to process the most worn properties. Cutting tool are along the tool surface precise formation on the surface of the thickness of the glittering and translucent and smooth is about 1 mu m amorphous diamond film, its most remarkable characteristic is that diamond tool with extremely high wear resistance, surface hardness of 60 ~ 90 gpa), and has a smooth surface of the cutting tool, reducing the friction of tool and workpiece surface, thereby significantly reducing the cutting temperature. In addition, the another big characteristic of amorphous diamond coating is on the cutting tool substrate material no special requirements, can be in any material tool substrate surface coating, the coating temperature is 150 ℃ only. It is introduced that SGS non-crystal diamond tool can be six times longer than AlTiN coating cutter.
The national standard
Related to hard alloy

GB/T 14445-1993 coal mining tools use hard alloy products
GB/T 2077-1987 hard alloy indexable blade radius
GB/T 2079-1987 non-porous hard alloy indexable insert
GB/T 2081-1987 carbide indexable milling cutter
GB/T 1481-1998 metal powder (excluding hard alloy powder) was measured in compressibility in uniaxial compression
GB/T 5166-1998 sintered metal materials and hard alloy elastic modulus determination
GB/T 9096-2002 sintered metal material (excluding hard alloy) impact test method
GB/T 9097.1-2002 sintered metal material (excluding hard alloy), the first part of the determination of the apparent hardness of the surface: the materials with the basic uniform hardness
GB/T 5319-2002 sintered metal material (excluding hard alloy) transverse fracture strength measurement
GB/T 6480-2002 chisel with hard alloy bit
GB/T 17985.1-2000 carbide turning tool part 1: code and symbol
GB/T 17985.2-2000 hard alloy turning tool part 2: external surface turning tool
GB/T 17985.3-2000 hard alloy turning tool part 3: internal surface turning tool
GB/T 18372-2001 hard alloy plate no. 2: geological, mining tools with hard alloy plate number
GB/T 18376.3-2001 hard alloy brand part 3: hard alloy plate number for wear-resistant parts
GB/T 3488-1983 metallographic determination of hard alloy microstructure
GB/T 3489-1983 metallographic determination of hard alloy porosity and non - chemical carbon
G/T 9217.2-2005 hard alloy rotary file part 2: cylindrical rotary file (type A)
G/T 9217.3-2005 hard alloy rotary file part 3: cylindrical ball head rotary file (type C)
G/T 9217.4-2005 hard alloy rotary file part 4: round ball rotary file (type D)
G/T 9217.5-2005 hard alloy rotary file part 5: oval rotary file (type E)
G/T 9217.6-2005 hard alloy rotary file part 6: curved round head rotary file (type F)
G/T 9217.7-2005 hard alloy rotary file part 7: curved pointed end rotary file (G type)
G/T 9217.8-2005 hard alloy rotary file part 8: torch rotary file (H type)
GB/T 9217.9 2005 carbide rotary file part 9:60 ° and 90 ° cone rotary file type (J and K)
G/T 9217.10-2005 carbide rotary file part 10: taper round head rotary file (L type)
G/T 9217.11-2005 hard alloy rotary file part 11: taper pointed end rotary file (M type)
G/T 9217.12-2005 hard alloy rotary file part 12: reverse tapered rotary file (N type)
G/T 9217.1-2005 carbide rotary file part 1: general technical conditions
GB/T 3848-1983 hard alloy coercive force determination method
GB/T 3849-1983 hard alloy rockwell hardness (A ruler) test method
GB/T 3850-1983 compact sintering metal material and hard alloy density determination method
Determination of transverse fracture strength of GB/T 3851-1983
GB/T 20255.5-2006 hard alloy chemical analysis method for determination of flame atomic absorption spectrometry
GB/T 20255.2-2006 hard alloy chemical analysis method for determination of flame atomic absorption spectrometry with cobalt, iron, manganese and nickel
GB/T 20255.3-2006 hard alloy chemical analysis method molybdenum, titanium and vanadium content determination of flame atomic absorption spectrometry
Determination of flame atomic absorption spectrometry by the determination of cobalt, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, titanium and vanadium in GB/T 20255.4-2006
GB/T 20255.1-2006 hard alloy chemical analysis method calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium determination of flame atomic absorption spectrometry
GB/T 5163-2006 sintered metal material (excluding hard alloy) permeable sintered metal material density, oil content and opening rate determination
GB/T 5242-2006 hard alloy products inspection rules and test methods
GB/T 5243-2006 hard alloy products logo, packaging, transportation and storage
GB/T 9062-2006 carbide wrong tooth face milling cutter
GB/T 10947-2006 carbide taper shank twist drill
GB/T 10948-2006 carbide t-slot milling cutter
The potential titration method for the determination of cobalt in GB/T 5124.3-1985 cemented carbide chemical analysis method
The titanium content was determined by the peroxide spectrophotometric method for the chemical analysis of hard alloy in GB/T 5124.4-1985
GB/T 5159-1985 metal powder (excluding cemented carbide powder) is used to determine the dimensional change in relation to forming and sintering
GB/T 5167-1985 sintered metal materials and hard alloy resistivity measurement
GB/T 2078-2007 fixed carbide indexable insert size with rounded corners
GB/T 2080-2007 with rounded corner and fixed hard alloy indexable insert size
GB/T 21182-2007 carbide waste
GB/T 5318-1985 sintered metal material (excluding hard alloy) without incision impact specimen
GB/T 5124.1-2008 hard alloy chemical analysis method total carbon weight method
GB/T 5124.2-2008 hard alloy chemical analysis method for determination of non-soluble (free) carbon content
GB/T 16770.2-2008 solid carbide straight shank end milling cutter part 2: technical conditions
GB/T 2527-2008 mine and oil field bit with hard alloy teeth
GB/T 16456.2-2008 carbide helical teeth end mill part 2:7:24 taper shank end milling cutter type and size
GB/T 16456.4-2008 carbide spiral teeth end milling cutter - part 4: technical conditions
GB/T 16456.9-2010 hard alloy electronic cutting tool: cutter blade and v-cut knife size model
GB/T 16456.3-2008 carbide helical teeth end milling cutter part 3: Morse taper shank end milling cutter type and size
GB/T 16456.1-2008 carbide spiral teeth end milling cutter part 1: straight shank vertical milling cutter type and size
GB/T 16770.1-2008 integral carbide straight shank end milling cutter part 1: type and dimension
GB/T 3612-2008 gauge and gauge with hard alloy blank
GB/T 6110-2008 hard alloy drawing model and size
GB/T 20255.6-2008 hard alloy chemical analysis method flame atomic absorption spectrometry general requirements
GB/T 11102-2008 geological exploration tools for hard alloy products
GB/T 18376.1-2008 hard alloy plate no. 1: cutting tool with hard alloy plate number
GB/T 3879-2008 steel bonded hard alloy material
GB/T 10417-2008 tungsten carbide technical conditions and their mechanical properties test methods
GB/T 14330-2008 carbide machine clip with three sides milling cutter
GB/T 14301-2008 solid carbide saw blade milling cutter
GB/T 4251-2008 carbide machine reamer
GB/T 6883-1995 line, rod and tube die hard alloy die
GB/T 6885-1986 cemented carbide mixed powder sampling and test method
GB/T 11101-2009 hard alloy round bar blank
GB/T 23369-2009 standard test method for hard alloy magnetic saturation (MS)
GB/T 23370-2009 hard alloy compression test method
GB/T 14388-2010 woodworking carbide circular saw blade
GB/T 6335.1-2010 rotary and rotating impact hard alloy construction drill part 1: dimensions
GB/T 25667.1-2010 overall hard alloy straight shank twist drill part 1: straight shank twist drill type and size
GB/T 25667.2 2010 overall carbide straight shank twist drill part 2:2 ° inclined made straight shank twist drill the type and size
GB/T 25667.3-2010 overall hard alloy straight shank twist drill part 3: technical conditions
GB/T 6335.2-2010 rotary and rotating impact hard alloy construction drill part 2: technical conditions
GB/T 25670-2010 carbide helical end milling cutter
GB/T 25666-2010 hard alloy straight shank twist drill
GB/T 7963-1987 sintered metal material (excluding hard alloy) tensile specimen
GB/T 7964-1987 sintered metal material (excluding hard alloy) [1] temperature tensile test
GB/T 7997-1987 hard alloy vickers hardness test method
GB/T 26052-2010 hard alloy tubular electrode
GB/T 26053-2010 hard alloy spray welding powder
GB/T 26054-2010 hard alloy regeneration mixture
GB/T 2592-2010 solid carbide and ceramic straight shank ball end milling cutter size
GB/T 26050-2010 hard alloy X-ray fluorescence determination of metal element content melting method
Determination of sulfur and carbon content in GB/T 26051-2010
GB/T 26280-2010 chisel with hard alloy
GB/T 3849.2-2010 hard alloy rockwell hardness test (A ruler) part 2: preparation and calibration of standard test blocks
GB/T 28248-2012 printed plate with carbide bit
GB/T 11108-1989 determination of thermal diffusion rate of hard alloy
GB/T 1817-1995 hard alloy temperature impact toughness test method

Carbide milling cutter

Carbide milling cutter is a milling cutter made of tungsten carbide rods. Know hard alloy cutter first have to know what is cemented carbide, tungsten carbide with high hardness of the refractory metal carbides (WC, TiC) micron grade powder as main ingredients, with cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni), molybdenum (Mo) as the binder, sintering in vacuum furnace or hydrogen reduction furnace of powder metallurgy products.

Hard alloy cutter main points: solid carbide cutter. Carbide straight shank slotting cutter. Carbide saw blade milling cutter. Carbide end milling spiral drill. Carbide end milling machine reamer. Carbide end mill. Carbide ball milling cutter head

Application of carbide milling cutter: The carbide milling cutter is mainly used in CNC machining center and CNC engraving machine. It can also be loaded into ordinary milling machine to process some hard and uncomplicated heat treatment materials.

  • 1. Carbide cylindrical milling cutter: used for horizontal milling machine. The knife teeth are distributed on the circumference of the milling cutter, and the teeth are divided into straight teeth and helical teeth. The teeth are divided into two types: teeth and teeth. The teeth of the helical teeth are small, the tooth strength is high, the space is large, and it is suitable for rough machining. The fine-tooth milling cutter is suitable for finishing.
  • 2. Carbide face milling cutter: it is used for vertical milling machine, end face milling machine or gantry milling machine, which has blade teeth on the end face and circumference, and also has the points of coarse teeth and fine teeth. The structure has the whole body type, the tooth type and the indexable type 3 kinds.
  • 3. Carbide end milling cutter: for processing groove and step surface, the knife teeth are in the circumference and the end surface, and can not feed along the axis when working. When the end teeth of the vertical milling cutter are passed through the center, the axial feed can be axial.
  • 4. Carbide three-side milling cutter: used to process various grooves and step surfaces, with blade teeth on both sides and circumference.
  • 5. Carbide Angle milling cutter: groove groove used for milling to a certain Angle, with single Angle and double Angle milling cutter.
  • 6. Carbide saw blade milling cutter: for machining deep groove and cutting off workpiece, there are more knife teeth on the circumference. In order to reduce the friction when milling, blade on both sides of the 15 '~ 1 ° Angle. In addition, there are keyway milling cutter, dovetail slot milling cutter, t-shaped slot milling cutter and various forming milling cutter.

There are two main types of milling methods for carbide milling cutter's direction and rotation direction of milling cutter: The first type is the milling, the rotation direction of the milling cutter and the cutting direction of the feed are the same, and the milling cutter holds the workpiece and cuts the final chip in the beginning of cutting.

Inverse milling, the second is the direction of rotation of the milling cutter and cutting feed direction is opposite, cutter before start cutting must be slipping a on the workpiece, start with cutting thickness is zero, the cutting at the end of the maximum cutting thickness.

When milling, the workpiece is pressed to the workbench by cutting force, and the workpiece is removed from the worktable during milling. Because of the best cutting effect of milling, it is usually preferred to milling, only when the machine has the problem of thread clearance and the problem of unsolved problem.

The cutting edge of carbide milling cutter should bear the impact load every time it enters the cutting. The load size depends on the cross section, workpiece material and cutting type of the chip. In the ideal condition, the diameter of the milling cutter should be larger than that of the workpiece, and the axis of the milling cutter should always be slightly away from the center line of the workpiece. When the cutter is placed in the cutting center, it can easily produce burrs. Cutting edge into the cutting and cutting out the direction of the radial cutting force will continue to change, machine tool spindle can vibration and damage, the blade may rupture and processing surface will be very rough, hard alloy cutter slightly off center, cutting force direction will no longer fluctuations, cutter will receive a pre load.

When the axial line of carbide milling cutter or the edge line of the workpiece is superimposed or close to the edge of the workpiece, the situation will be serious, and the operator should do the relevant equipment maintenance work.

  • 1. Check the power and stiffness of the machine to ensure that the required milling cutter diameter can be used on the machine tool.
  • 2. The weight of the cutter in the spindle is minimized to minimize the impact of the milling cutter axis and the position of the workpiece on the impact load.
  • 3. The suitable for the process of the correct cutter tooth pitch, to ensure that did not too much during the cutting blade mesh and artifacts caused by the vibration at the same time, on the other hand, in the narrow artifacts or milling milling cavity to ensure that there are enough blades and workpiece mesh.
  • 4. Ensure that each blade is used to get the correct cutting effect when the chip is thick enough to reduce tool wear. The forward corner slot can be used to achieve a smooth cutting effect and minimum power.
  • 5. The diameter of milling cutter is suitable for the width of workpiece.
  • 6. Choose the correct main Angle.
  • 7. Place the milling cutter correctly.
  • 8. Use cutting fluid only if necessary.
  • 9. Follow tool maintenance and maintenance rules and monitor tool wear.

The maintenance of carbide milling cutter can prolong tool life and improve work efficiency.

Milling stainless steel in addition to the vertical milling cutter and carbide end milling cutter and the parts of the cutter material, the rest of the all kinds of milling cutter adopt high speed steel, especially high tungsten, molybdenum and vanadium high speed steel has a good effect, the tool life than W18Cr4V 1 ~ 2 times. The hard alloy plate for making stainless steel mill is YG8, YW2, 813, 798, YS2T, YS30, YS25, etc.

The effect of spray cooling method is most obvious, which can increase the durability of milling cutter more than double. If the normal 10% emulsion cooling is used, the cutting fluid flow should be guaranteed to be fully cooled. When the carbide milling cutter is milling stainless steel, the Vc=70 ~ 150m/min, Vf=37.5 ~ 150mm/min, and it should be adjusted according to the alloy plate number and the different materials.

Stainless steel adhesion and melt with strong sex of chip easy adhesion on the cutter blade, the cutting condition deteriorated; Conventional milling, blade at first had hardening on the surface of sliding, increased the work hardening trend; Shock, vibration is larger when the milling, the cutter blade easily collapse and the blade wear.

Stainless steel milling, a cutting edge sharp and should be able to withstand shocks, let crumbs slot. Can use the big spiral Angle cutter (cylindrical milling cutter, end mill), spiral Angle b increased from 20 ° to 45 ° (designed.the gn = 5 °), the tool life can be increased by more than 2 times, because work at the moment of the milling cutter rake Angle g0e by 11 ° increased to more than 27 °, milling fast. But b value should not be again big, especially the vertical milling cutter with b 35 ° or less advisable, so as to avoid weakening the blade. The wave vertical milling cutter blade processing or thin-walled stainless steel tube, fast cutting, small vibration, chip is fragile, workpiece deformation. In high-speed milling, indexable carbide end milling cuttes end milling cutter milling stainless steel can obtain good effect.

1 cr18ni9ti with silvery white breadcrumbs end milling cutter, the geometric parameters for gf = 5 °, gp = 15 °, 15 °, af = = ap 55 °, 5 °, kr = k 'r = 35 °, 30 °, bg g01 = - = 0.4 mm, re = 6 mm, when Vc = 50 ~ 90 m/min, Vf = 630 ~ 750 mm/min, and a' p = 2 ~ 6 mm per tooth feeding up to 0.4 ~ 0.4 mm, milling force decreases 10% ~ 15%, and the milling power down 44%, also greatly improve the efficiency. Its principle is on the main cutting edge grinding out negative chamfer, milling artificially generated when the devolop tumor, instead of cutting edges for cutting, the devolop tumor of the anterior horn of gb of 20 ~ 302, as a result of the action of the main Angle, the devolop tumor caused by a knife before surface parallel to the thrust of the cutting edge of the chip to become vice flow, to take away the cutting heat, reduces the cutting temperature.

Milling of stainless steel, should be used as suitable milling processing. Asymmetric along the cutting edge milling method can guarantee smoothly cut off from the metal, chip bonding contact area is lesser, vulnerable to dump under the effect of high speed centrifugal force, so as to avoid blade to cut into the workpiece, chip impact before the knife blade surface spalling and crack phenomenon, improve the durability of cutting tools. Stainless steel material is widely used in machining, milling, drilling, tapping can be met. But because the stainless steel has the character that is not the same as the regular material, so the processing of stainless steel is a big problem become a technical personnel!

Tungsten carbide roll

Hard alloy roll ring (also called tungsten carbide roll ring), excellent performance, stable quality, high precision of product processing, good abrasion resistance and high impact resistance.

Hard alloy roll is a roll made of tungsten carbide and cobalt. Hard alloy roll has a whole body type and a combination of two kinds.

Cemented carbide rollers were born after the invention of powder metallurgy in 1909. After Germany introduced the hard alloy wire drawing die in 1918, the study of hard alloy was aroused, and the roll of various applications appeared in succession. But a lot of applications of hard alloy rollers came after 1960. In 1964, Morgen's first high-speed untwisted wire mill was born, and it quadrupled the speed of the wire. Because of the finishing mill group is working under high speed, high stress, the wear resistance of cast iron roller, tool steel roller, groove life is short, roll repair loading and unloading is very frequent, affect the efficiency of the mill, has not adapt to the request of the finishing production, replaced by combined carbide roll. There are more than two hundred Morgan mills in the world, and the annual consumption of hard alloy rollers is hundreds of tons.

Hard alloy rolls have high hardness, and the hardness value is rather small, along with the change of temperature of 700 ℃ when the hardness value is four times that of high speed steel; The elastic modulus, compressive strength, bending strength and thermal conductivity are more than 1 times higher than tool steel. Due to their high thermal conductivity of carbide roll, so the cooling effect is good, make the roll surface at high temperature time is shorter, thus make the roll cooling water with harmful impurity in the high temperature reaction time is shorter. Therefore, hard alloy rollers are more resistant to corrosion and thermal fatigue than tool steel rolls.