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The development of powder metallurgy hydraulic presses in powder metallurgy industry is developing spring
Powder metallurgy technology can minimize the composition of alloy and eliminate large and uneven casting tissues. In the preparation of high performance rare-earth permanent magnetic materials, rare earth hydrogen storage materials, rare earth luminescent material, rare earth catalyst, high temperature superconducting materials, new type metal materials (such as Al - Li alloy, heat-resistant Al alloy, super alloy, corrosion resistant stainless steel powder, powder high speed steel and high temperature structural materials intermetallic compounds, etc.) plays an important role.
In recent years, our country through continuous introduction of advanced foreign advanced technology combined with independent development innovation, make the powder metallurgy industry in China and the technology shows a tendency of rapid development, is China's mechanical generic components industry, one of the fastest growing industry in a year of powder metallurgy industry of the country's GDP growth rate is 35%.
Powder metallurgy hydraulic press, as a necessary equipment for powder metallurgy industry, with the rapid development of powder metallurgy industry, the development of powder metallurgy hydraulic press in the powder metallurgy industry in the development of spring, broad prospects for development.
Hard alloy cutting tool popular science knowledge
Tool is a tool used in machining, also known as cutting tool. Broad cutting tools include tools, including tools. The vast majority of knives are used by machines, but they are also used by hand. Because the tools used in mechanical manufacturing are basically used for cutting metal materials, the term "tool" is generally understood as a metal cutting tool. The cutting tool for cutting wood is a tool used for cutting tools in machine manufacturing, and also known as cutting tool. Broad cutting tools include tools, including tools. The vast majority of knives are used by machines, but they are also used by hand. Because the tools used in mechanical manufacturing are basically used for cutting metal materials, the term "tool" is generally understood as a metal cutting tool. Tools for cutting wood are called woodworking knives.
The development of knives occupies an important position in the history of human progress. As early as the 20th century BC, China has appeared in the copper taper, drill, knife and other copper cutting tools. During the later period of the warring states period (third century BC), copper cutting tools were made due to the mastery of carburizing technology. The drills and saws were similar to those of modern flat diamonds and saws.
However, the rapid development of knives came in the late 18th century, with the development of machines such as steam engines. In 1783, a milling cutter was first produced in the French. In 1792, mozley produced a tap and a die. The earliest literature on the invention of the twist was in 1822, but it was not produced as a commodity until 1864.
At that time, the cutting tool was made of whole high carbon tool steel, and the cutting speed was about 5 meters per minute. In 1868, musher in England was specially made of tungsten alloy tool steel. In 1898, Taylor and Wright of the United States invented high-speed steel. Hard alloy was invented in Germany in 1923.
Because high speed steel and hard alloy are more expensive, the tool is welded and mechanical clamping structure. From 1949 to 1950, the United States began using indexable blades on the handcutter, which were soon applied to milling cutters and other knives. In 1938, German company degussa patented the ceramic tool. In 1972, general electric Co. produced polycrystalline synthetic diamond and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride blades. These non-metal tool materials allow the cutter to cut at a higher speed.
In 1969, a chemical vapor deposition method was used to produce a patent for carbide blades for titanium carbide coatings. In 1972, the United States of bansha and lagolan developed the physical vapor deposition method, which was coated with titanium or nitride titanium carbide on the surface of hard alloy or high speed steel. The surface coating method combines the high strength and toughness of the substrate material with the high hardness and wear resistance of the surface, thus making the composites have better cutting performance.
The tool can be divided into five categories according to the form of workpiece machining. Machining various outer surface tools including tool, planer, milling cutter, external surface broach and file, etc. Hole machining tools, including drills, reaming drills, boring knives, reamer and internal surface broach, etc. Thread processing tools, including tap, die, automatic opening thread cutting, thread cutter and thread milling cutter, etc. Gear cutting tool, including hob, gear cutter, gear shaving cutter, bevel gear cutting tool, etc. Cutting tools, including insert saw blade, band saw, hacksaw, cutting tool and saw blade milling cutter, etc. In addition, there are combination knives.
The cutter can be divided into three categories according to the cutting motion and the corresponding blade shape. Universal cutter, such as tool, planer, milling cutter (not including shaping tool, shaping planer and forming milling cutter), boring cutter, bit, reaming drill, reamer and saw, etc. Cutter blade forming cutter, which have a section of the same or nearly the same with the machining shape, such as forming tool, forming cutter, the forming milling cutter, broach, conic reamer and all kinds of thread cutting tools, etc.; The cutter is used to process gear tooth surface or similar workpiece, such as hob, gear cutter, shaving cutter, bevel gear planer and bevel gear milling cutter.
The structure of various tools consists of the filling part and the working part. The filling part and working part of the overall structure tool are in the knife body. The working part of the insert cutter (knife or blade) is mounted on the cutter body.
The clamping part of the cutter has two kinds of holes and handle. The perforated tool relies on the inner hole set in the spindle or spindle of the machine tool, and the torsional moment can be passed by the axial key or the end face key, such as cylindrical milling cutter, shell type face milling cutter, etc.
A tool with a handle usually has a rectangular handle, a cylindrical handle and a taper handle. The lathe tool, planer and other general are rectangular handle; The taper handle bore the axial thrust with the taper, and passed the torque through friction; The cylindrical handle is generally applicable to smaller twist drill, vertical milling cutter, etc., and the torque is transferred by the friction force generated by clamping when cutting. The shank of many handles is made of low alloy steel, while the working part USES high speed steel to weld the two parts together.
The working part of the cutter is to produce and process the cutting parts, including the cutting edge, the structure of the cutting or winding, the space of the cuttings or the space for the cutting, the channel of the cutting fluid, and other structural elements. The working part of some tools is the cutting part, such as cutting tool, planer, boring tool and milling cutter. The working part of some tools includes cutting part and calibration part, such as drill bit, reaming drill, reamer, internal surface broach and tap, etc. The cutting part is used to cut off the chip with the blade. The part of the calibration is to repair the surface of the cutting and guide the cutter.
The structure of tool work part is integral type, welding type and mechanical clamping type three kinds. The overall structure is the cutting edge of the cutter. The welding structure is to brazing the blade to the steel cutter. There are two kinds of mechanical clamping structure, one is to clamp the blade to the cutter body, the other is to put the brazing knife clamp on the cutter body. Hard alloy cutting tools are generally made of welded structure or mechanical clamping structure; The porcelain cutter adopts mechanical clamping structure.
When choosing the Angle of cutter, it is necessary to consider the influence of various factors, such as workpiece material, tool material, processing property (rough, fine processing), etc., and must choose according to the specific situation. Tool Angle, usually refers to the annotation manufacturing and measuring Angle, in actual work, because of the cutting tools for cutting and the installation position of the different change in the direction of movement, the Angle of the practical work and annotation Angle is different, but the difference is very small, usually made of cutting tool materials must have high temperature hardness and wear resistance, the necessary bending strength, impact toughness, and chemical inertness, good manufacturability, machining, forging and heat treatment, etc.), and out of shape not easily.
Usually when the material is high hardness, wear resistance is high; When bending strength is high, the impact toughness is also high. But the higher the hardness, the lower the bending strength and impact toughness. High speed steel has high flexural strength and impact toughness, as well as good machinability. Modern is still the most widely used tool material, followed by hard alloy.
The polycrystalline cubic boron is suitable for cutting high hardness hardening steel and hard cast iron. The polycrystalline diamond is suitable for cutting non-ferrous metal, as well as alloy, plastic and fiberglass. Carbon tool steel and alloy tool steel are now used only as files, die and tap tools.
The carbide indexable blade has been coated with titanium carbide, titanium nitride, alumina hard layer or composite hard layer. The developing physical vapor deposition method is not only used for carbide cutting tools, but also for high speed steel tools such as drills, hob, taps and milling cutter. The hard coating is used as the barrier to prevent the chemical diffusion and heat conduction. The wear speed of the cutter is slowed down when cutting, and the life of the coating blade is about 1 ~ 3 times higher than the non-coating
Because under the high temperature and high pressure, high speed, and working in a corrosive fluid components, its application more and more of the refractory materials, cutting processing level of automation and the requirement of machining accuracy is higher and higher. In order to adapt to this situation, the development direction of the tool will be to develop and apply new tool materials. Furthermore, the gas phase deposition coating technology of the cutter is developed, and the coating of higher hardness is deposited on the base of high toughness and high strength, which can solve the contradiction between hardness and strength of tool materials. Further development of the structure of indexable cutter; Improve the manufacturing precision of the cutter, reduce the difference of product quality, and make the use of the cutter optimized.
Raw material price increases a wave of machine tool enterprise to hold on!
"Yesterday add 100,000, today add another 100 thousand", the housing market still has not abated, this side, the raw material price is beginning to make a noise again. Since the second half of 2016, prices of metal, wood, metal, iron ore, coal, steel and other raw materials have risen sharply, and some small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises have been under increasing pressure. Now, with the full launch of the fourth batch of central environmental protection inspectors, raw material prices have risen again, soaring. It is reported that in the face of rising raw materials, many manufacturers have issued price increases notice, hoping to reduce their own operating pressure by raising the price of products. Many netizens expressed concern about the development of manufacturing enterprises: "it is not easy to survive the off-season, but" die "in the peak season."
Raw material prices continue to rise
After more than 30 years of ups and downs, China has become the largest manufacturing country in the world, with more than 220 kinds of industrial products. As the "industrial mother machine", the numerical control machine is the world's largest, but it is mainly in the middle and low-end. At present, with the hardware, steel, non-ferrous metals and other raw materials prices soaring, the whole machine tool industry is facing a demographic dividend disappears, rising prices of raw materials, environmental protection pressure, such as reduced export difficulties, these for machine tool companies certainly is a big challenge.
As a manufacturing machine, the price of machine tools will also be affected. Normally, a machine tool by the bed, headstock, feed box, tool post, knife library and tailstock basic parts, such as bed, pillar, bearing, cutter by the iron and steel, metal, metal and other materials. Some in the industry say the rise in raw material prices may follow a rise in the price of machine tools and knives. The machine tool enterprise insists on living
Recently, in order to reduce this cost increase to the enterprise profit compression, a number of machine tool enterprises have also issued the price adjustment notice. It is reported that some of Taiwan's machine tool factory has received the notice from the Japanese central controller factory Fanuc recently, the price of the controller will be increased 5% ~ 10%. Since the cost of controller can account for 2 percent of the cost of machine tool, the price raised by fanuc has also raised the production pressure of machine tool enterprises. In addition, manufacturers of tools, alloys and other manufacturers also issued price increases notice.
Kenner Asia (China) enterprise management co., LTD., issue a notice to cutting tool products price adjustment, influenced by many factors, kenner metal decision since October 1, 2017, to moderate the related tool products price adjustment. Nanchang cemented carbide limited liability company release bar stock price adjustment notice, since the prices of the raw material in the alloy prices keep rising, south hard company decided since September 1, 2017 to adjust the price of alloy products of the company. The announcement of the price adjustment of the bar material in the spring baosena decided to raise the price of hard alloy products by 15% from August 14, 2017.
Chongyi Zhangyuan Tungsten Co., ltd. products price adjustment notice, because the carbide Tungsten and cobalt raw materials prices continue to rise, ZhangYuan Tungsten decision since August 20, 2017, the company's products are in accordance with the new price. Qingzhou hao zhang industry and trade co., LTD. Issued a notice on the price adjustment of the products. The adjustment price of the company's casting has been determined, and the price of the lost model HT250 is priced at 7,400 / ton and the HT300 price is 7700 / ton. Resin sand HT250 pricing 7900 / ton, HT300 pricing 8200 / ton. So, in the face of the price of raw materials again, the machine tool enterprises will not raise the price of products, what should be the response measures?
The increase of raw materials means that the manufacturing cost of machine tool enterprises is rising, and cost competition has become an important competitive mode among machine tool enterprises. Under the pressure of enterprise operating cost, reducing marketing cost may be one of the options for enterprises to compress operating costs. In addition, machine tool enterprises can reduce the cost of products in terms of sales, service and other aspects according to their own situation.
The machine tool enterprise according to the market situation, appropriately raises the product price, the reasonable adjustment, controls the scope that the user accepts, after the adjustment price, promptly notifies the new old user. You rise me gain The supply of raw materials has been in short supply in recent years, so prices have been rising all the way. Machine tool enterprises should improve the added value of machine tool products through technological innovation. Through technical innovation, improve the machining efficiency of the machine and the utilization of materials, reduce the waste discharge rate, and actually make green manufacturing. In addition, machine tool enterprises can develop some low consumption products that meet personalized needs. "Things out there because of", of course, increase in raw material in a short period of time for machine tool enterprises should understand the cause of the rise in time, combined with their own strength and operation situation, formulate appropriate responses, take timely measures to reduce losses, to ensure sustainable development of enterprises. At the same time, in the face of increasingly fierce market competition, the machine tool enterprises should always adhere to the innovation and development, will be high-quality products, perfect solution to every user, truly want users want, urgent need of the client.
The rise in raw material prices is a challenge and an opportunity for machine tool enterprises. In fact, the price of raw materials reversed transmission machine tool industry upgrade upgrades, machine tool products, machine tool enterprises, for the machine tool industry provides a good product added value, so as to enhance the capacity of premium products to promote the transformation of machine tool industry development of our country. Generally speaking, in the face of a dilemma, machine tool enterprises should actively change, by means of intelligent manufacturing, trying to get through the whole industry chain, machine tool manufacturing key link of data flow, break the advanced foreign technology monopoly. Overall production pattern, the business model changes, and strive to realize the machine tool industry labor productivity, the production of flexible, as well as the improvement of product quality, energy consumption of resources, further promoting the development of China's machine tool industry to the high-end. The article links: China's machine tool business website
The requirements and selection of stamping die materials
The stamping die is subjected to shock, vibration, friction, high pressure and stretching, bending and torsion, etc High temperature work (such as cold extrusion), working conditions are complicated, easy to wear wear, fatigue, fracture, deformation Wait for a phenomenon. Therefore, the requirements for the parts materials are higher than the ordinary parts. Due to different working conditions of various stamping dies, the requirements for the materials of working parts are also poor A vision.
- 1. The requirement of punching die material For the working part of sheet punching die, it is required to have high wear resistance and hardness. And the thickness plate blanks Die in addition to Requirements of high wear resistance, Compressive yield point, To prevent fracture or collapse of the die, Also should be It has high fracture resistance, high flexural strength and toughness.
- 2. The requirement of deep die material It is required that the mold working parts material have good anti-adhesion (anti-occlusion), high abrasion resistance and hardness, It has a certain toughness and good cutting performance, and it is less deformed during heat treatment.
- 3. Cold extrusion die material The requirements of Require high strength and hardness of working parts, High wear resistance, To avoid impact fracture, There's one more Fixed toughness. Because it's going to heat up a little bit because of the squeeze, Therefore, it should also have certain heat resistance fatigue and heat hard
Types and characteristics of stamping die materials
Materials for stamping die have steel, hard alloy, Steel bonded hard alloy, zinc base alloy, low melting point Gold, aluminum bronze, polymer materials and so on. At present, most of the materials for stamping die are mainly steel. The kinds of material used for mold working parts are: carbon tool steel, low alloy tool steel, high carbon High chromium or medium Chromium tool steel, medium carbon alloy steel, high speed steel, matrix steel and hard alloy, Steel cemented carbide Etc. And so on.
- 1. Carbon tool steel More carbon tool steel is used in the mould T8A, T10A Wait, the advantage is the processing property is good, the price is Appropriate. But the hardenability and red hardness, heat treatment deformation is large, carrying capacity is low.
- 2. Low alloy tool steel Low alloy tool steel is a suitable amount of alloy element on the basis of carbon tool steel. And carbon tools Compared with steel, the quenching deformation and cracking tendency are reduced, the hardening and wear resistance of steel are improved. Be used for Low alloy steel for making moulds is available CrWMn, 9 mn2v , 7 crsimnmov ( Code name CH - 1) , 6 crnisimnmov ( Code name GD) And so on.
- 3. High carbon high chromium tool steel Common high carbon high chromium tool steel has Cr12 and Cr12MoV , Cr12Mo1V1 (code D2 ), and they With better hardenability, Hardened and abrasion resistance, The heat treatment deformation is very small. For high wear-resistant micro-deformation die steel,The carrying capacity is second only to high speed steel. But the carbide segregation is serious It must be repeatedly upsetting (axial heading, diameter Change to pull) Forging to reduce the inhomogeneity of carbide and improve the performance.
- 4. High carbon medium chromium tool steel The high carbon medium chromium tool steel used in mold is available Cr4W2MoV , Cr6WV , Cr5MoV , etc. They contain The chromium is low, Eutectic carbide Few, the carbide distribution is even, the heat treatment deformation is small, has the good quenching Stability of sex and dimension. Compared with the carbonization of high - carbon high - chromium steel, the performance improved.
- 5. High speed steel High speed steel has the highest mold steel the Hardness, Wear resistance and compressive strength, High load capacity. molds It's often used W18Cr4V (code The 8-4-1 ) and less tungsten W6Mo5 Cr4V2 (code The 6-5-4-2 The American brand is M2 ) and to improve resilience Carbon vanadium reduction High speed steel 6 w6mo5 Cr4V (code 6 w6 Or low carbon M2 - . High-speed steel also needs to be changed forging , To improve its carbide distribution .
- 6. The matrix steel Add a small amount of other elements to the basic components of high - speed steel, increase or decrease the carbon content, to improve the steel Performance. Such steel is referred to as matrix steel. They not only have the characteristics of high speed steel, It has some abrasion resistance The hardness, And the fatigue strength and toughness are superior to high speed steel. For the high strength Ductile cold as die steel , Materials into Ben is lower than high speed steel. The common ground steel in the mould is 6 cr4w3mo2vnb (code 65 nb ),
- 7. cr7mo2v2si (code LD ), 5 cr4mo3simnval (code 012 al ), etc. 7. Hard alloy and steel cemented carbide The hardness and wear resistance of hard alloy is higher than that of any other type of die steel. But the bending strength and toughness are poor. with The hard alloy for mold is Tungsten cobalt class It can be used in mold with high impact resistance and high abrasion resistance containing Lower cobalt content Hard alloy. For impact large mold, optional High cobalt content Hard alloy. Steel cemented carbide Powder with a small amount of alloy powder (such as chromium, molybdenum , tungsten, vanadium, etc. To make the glue, With carbide Titanium or tungsten carbide is hard phase , Sintering with powder metallurgy method. Steel bond hard alloy The base body is steel, which has overcome the disadvantage of hard alloy toughness and difficult machining, which can be cut and welded Grafting, forging and heat treatment. Steel cemented carbide contains a large amount of carbide, although hardness and wear resistance are lower Hard alloy, but still higher than other steel, the hardness can be reached after quenching and tempering 68-73 HRC
The selection of stamping die material and heat treatment requirements
one . The selection of die material and heat treatment requirements The selection of die material should consider the production of the workpiece. There is no need to choose a high life if the bulk is not large Mold materials; You should also consider the material of the punching piece, Different materials can be used for mold materials. yeah In cutting die, Wear resistance is an important factor in determining die life. The wear resistance of steel depends on the carbide The condition of the hard point phase and the hardness of the matrix, The higher the hardness of the two, The more carbon, The wear resistance The better. Common stamping die steel wear resistance In order to be inferior For carbon tool steel - Alloy tool steel - The matrix steel - High carbon and high chromium steel - High speed steel - Steel bonded carbide - Hard alloy. In addition, the thickness of the workpiece must be considered, The shape, Size, The precision requirement and other factors are selected for mold material The influence of.
- 1. Steel for traditional moulds For a long time, domestic thin plate blanking die with steel T10A , CrWMn , 9 mn2v , Cr12 and Cr12MoV And so on. Among them T10A For carbon tool steel, it has certain strength and toughness. But the wear resistance is not high, the quenching is easy to deform And the crack, the hardenability difference, apply only to the workpiece shape simple, small size, small amount of blanking die. T10A The heat treatment process of carbon tool steel is: 760 ~ 810 ℃ water or oil Quenching, 160 ~ 180 ℃ Back to the Fire, hardness 59-62 HRC . CrWMn , 9 mn2v High carbon low alloy steel, Quenching is easy, The hardenability is better than the carbon tool steel, Deformation is easy to control. But wear resistance and toughness are still low, Applied to medium batch, The shape of the workpiece is more complicated The mold. CrWMn The heat treatment process of steel is: quenching temperature 820 ~ 840 ℃ Oil cooling , tempering temperature 200 ℃, hardness 60 ~ 62 HRC . 9 mn2v The heat treatment process of steel is: quenching temperature 780 ~ 820 ℃ Oil cooling , Tempering temperature 150 ~ 200 ℃, Air cooling, hardness 60 ~ 62 HRC . Pay attention to Back to the Temperature in fire 200 ~ 300 ℃ range have temper brittleness and significant volume expansion, should be avoided. Cr12 and Cr12MoV High carbon and high chromium steel, high abrasion resistance, low deformation in quenching and good quenching. Can be used in mass production of moulds, such as silicon steel sheet blanking die. However, there is a carbon inhomogeneity in this type of steel. It is easy to produce carbide segregation, and it is easy to collapse when blanking The blade Or rupture. Among them, Cr12 High carbon content, The distribution of carbide is not equal Cr12MoV Serious, brittleness is a little bit bigger. Cr12 The selection of heat treatment process of the section steel depends on the requirements of the mold, when the mould requires less deformation With certain toughness, the cold quenching and tempering can be used. Cr12 for 950 ~ 980 ℃ quenching, 150 ~ 200 ℃ tempering; Cr12MoV for 1020 ~ 1050 ℃ quenching, 180 ~ 200 ℃ tempering ). In order to improve the temperature of the mold, improve its hardenability and hardness, it can be tempered and tempered ( Cr12 for 1000 ~ 1100 ℃ quenching, 480 ~ 500 ℃ tempering; Cr12MoV for 1110 ~ 1140 ℃ quenching, 500 ~ 520 ℃ tempering ). The high chrome steel in 275 ~ 375 ℃ area have temper brittleness, should be avoided.
2. Common mould new steel In order to compensate for the performance of traditional steel, Domestic development or introduce the following good stamping die Steel:
- ( 1 - Cr12Mo1V1 (code D2 ) steel As the imitation of the United States ASTM In the standard D2 Steel lead Into the Of the steel, genus Cr12 Steel. In the light of D2 In steel Mo , V The content increases and the grain is refined. The distribution of carbide is improved, so D2 Toughness of steel (impact toughness, flexural strength, deflection) than Cr12MoV Steel has been improved, wear resistance and resistance to tempering stability Cr12MoV Higher. availability Deep cold treatment, improve hardness and improve dimensional stability. with D2 The die life of steel production is higher than that Cr12MoV Steel mold. D2 The forging properties of steel and thermal shaping ratio Cr12MoV Steel is a little difference, Mechanical processing and heat treatment The art and Cr12 Shaped steel is similar.
- ( 2 - Cr6WV steel For the high Wear-resisting micro Deformed high carbon steel, Carbon, The chromium content was lower than that Cr12 type The distribution of steel and carbide is relatively low Cr12MoV Uniform, with good hardenability. Small deformation of heat treatment, Good mechanical processing performance. Bending strength and impact toughness are superior Cr12MoV , It's just slightly less abrasive Cr12 Steel. For high hardness and high abrasion die, the effect is better Cr12 Steel. The common heat treatment process of steel is: quenching temperature 9701 ~ 000 ℃, can generally be hot oil or nitrate quenching classification Cooling, Small parts can be used for air cooling. Fire immediately after quenching, Tempering temperature 160210 - ℃, hardness 58 to 62 HRC .
- ( 3 - Cr4W2MoV steel Is also high Wear-resisting micro Deformed high carbon steel, replaced Cr12 Steel and The developed steel type, the carbide uniformity is good, the wear resistance is higher than Cr12MoV , suitable for making complex shapes, The high precision stamping die can be used for the die cutting of silicon steel sheet. Cr4W2MoV The heat treatment process of steel: when the strength and toughness are high, the low temperature quenching and low temperature return are used Fire technology: quenching temperature 960 ~ 980 ℃, tempering temperature 280 ~ 320 ℃, hardness 60 ~ 62 HRC . High temperature quenching and high temperature tempering process: quenching temperature are required for high hardness and abrasion resistance 1020 ~ 1040 ℃, tempering temperature 50 0 ~ 540 ℃, hardness 60 ~ 62 HRC .
- ( 4 - 7 crsimnmov ( Code name CH - 1) steel for Low alloy steel with air quenching microdeformation, Flame hardening steel, Can use the flame for local quenching, Hardened die cutting edge part. Quenching temperature ( 800 ~ 1000 ℃ - , Having good hardenability and hardenability (up to 60 HRC Above), high strength and toughness, collapse The blade It can be resoldered. But instead of CrWMn , Cr12MoV Steel, Make a complex blanking die. CH 1 steel Recommended heat treatment process: Quenching temperature 900 ~ 920 ℃, Oil cooling , 190 ~ 200 ℃ tempering 1 ~ 3 small The hardness 58 to 62 HRC .
- ( 5 - 6 crnisimnmov ( Code name GD) steel High toughness and low alloy steel with good hardenability and air quenching Small deformation and high wear resistance. Its toughness is significantly higher CrWMn and Cr12MoV Steel, hard to slide Or rupture. It is especially suitable for thin and thin sheets Punch and Large, complex shape, thin wall convex mold. GD Recommended heat treatment of steel: quenching temperature 870 ~ 930 ℃ ( 900 ℃ The best Salt bath furnace Heating ( 45 s/mm ), Oil cooling or It's cold and cold , 175 ~ 230 ℃ tempering 2 Hour, hardness 58 to 62 HRC . The air is hardened by air Can also be heated by flame.
- ( six - 9 cr6w3mo2v2 ( Code name GM) Steel is high wear resistance toughening Alloy steel, various process It can be good, its abrasion resistance, toughness and processing performance are all superior Cr12 Shape steel, can be used for high - speed pressure Multi-station under stamping Progressive die etc. Precision die, is an ideal wear-resisting, precision stamping die steel. GM Heat treatment process of steel: quenching temperature 1080 ~ 1120 ℃, hardness 64-66 HRC . Back to HuoWen degree 540 ~ 560 ℃, tempering secondary.
- ( seven - Cr8MoWV3Si ( Code name ER5) steel High wear-resisting and high toughness alloy steel, It has good electricity Spark processing performance, strength, toughness, wear resistance are superior Cr12 Shape steel, suitable for large precision stamping The mold. Used for cutting die of silicon steel sheet, once The blade Life expectancy of grinding 21 Ten thousand times, Total life expectancy 360 Ten thousand times, It is the high life level of steel die blanking silicon steel sheet. ER5 The recommended heat treatment process for steel: the mould for high wear resistance and high toughness 1150 ℃ quenching The fire, 520 ~ 530 ℃ tempering 3 Times; For heavy-duty service conditions, using 1120 ~ 1130 ℃ Quenching, 550 ℃ tempering 3 Times.
3 . Hard alloy and cemented carbide When the bulk of the artifact is large, It can be considered that the hardness and abrasion resistance are higher than that of all kinds of die steel gold Or steel cemented carbide . Hard alloy for mould material Tungsten cobalt class As the Cobalt increase Plus, Toughness and flexural strength improved and hardness decreased. For the moulds that bear less impact, You can choose containing Lower cobalt content the YG10X ; Bearing medium or larger mold, High cobalt content can be used the YG15 or YG20 . The defects of hard alloy are poor toughness and difficult to process, as the working part of mould Pieces can be designed to be inlaid. The properties of steel cemented carbide are between hard alloy and high speed steel Mechanical processing and heat treatment can be used to make complex high life molds. Blanking die Steel bonded hard Quality alloy have DT , GT35 , TLMW50 , GW50 And so on. Heavy plate blanking die The blanking pressure of thick plate blanking die is higher than that of thin plate punching die. For reloading die, Easy to wear and tear, collapse The blade And fracture, Therefore, the requirement of mould material should have high wear resistance and toughness. Traditional moulds are mainly used in heavy-duty blanking die steel T8A , Cr12MoV , W18Cr4V , W6Mo5 Cr4V2 And so on. Among them T8A For carbon tool steel, although the hardenability and toughness ratio T10A Steel has improved but is fragile The mesh carbide and thermal hardness can only be used in the medium thick blanking die. T8A The tool steel Heat treatment process is: 790 ~ 820 ℃ water or oil Quenching, 160 ~ 180 ℃ Tempering hardness 58 to 61 HRC . W18Cr4V , W6Mo5Cr4V2 For high speed tool steel, High hardness, Compressive strength and abrasion resistance, But the toughness is low and the work may collapse The blade or break, and the price is more expensive. Low temperature quenching is recommended Fire, fast heating quenching and other technological measures to improve its toughness. For heavy plate blanking die with large batch size, You can use W18Cr4V , W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel convex Die, Cr12MoV Steel die . W18Cr4V Recommended heat treatment process of steel: 1220 ~ 1250 ℃ Quenching; 550 ~ 570 ℃ tempering 3 Times. W6Mo5Cr4V2 Recommended heat treatment process of steel: 1160 ~ 1200 ℃ quenching : 550 ~ 570 ℃ Back to the The fire 3 Times.
3. Common mould new steel In order to overcome the disadvantages of high speed tool steel, Improved service life, Reload punching die can be used Carbon vanadium reduction height The speed of steel 6 W6Mo5 Cr4V ( 6 w6 ) and a small amount of other elements are added based on the components of high speed steel High toughness die steel - Base steel, such as 65 nb Steel, LD Steel, 012 al Steel, CG - 2 Steel etc. Etc. .
- ( 1 - 6 W6Mo5 Cr4V w6 (6) steel For high toughness high speed steel, the content of carbide is reduced And distribution uniformity, So that while keeping the hardness and wear resistant, Bending strength, Impact toughness and plasticity There is a significant improvement, although the wear resistance is slightly low, still usable low temperature Nitrogen and carbon can be improved together Surface hardness and wear resistance. Heat treatment process and high speed steel W6Mo5Cr4V2 Similar.
- ( 2 - 6 cr4w3mo2vnb (nb) 65 steel 65 nb Steel from W6Mo5CrV2 Steel is normal quenching The basic composition of fire is lower than high speed steel and carbon quality fractions In the limit of 0.65% , therefore 65 nb . The role of each alloy element in steel is similar to that in high speed steel. The other to join 3% the Nb Can be To form high - stable carbide NbC , Can effectively prevent austenite grain growth, Improve the mechanical properties of steel And process performance. This steel has good wear resistance and high temperature toughness, can be replaced Cr12MoV , W18Cr4V Steel for heavy-duty punching die and cold extrusion die, Cold heading die . 65 nb The steel forging and annealing process have good performance, the temperature range of heat treatment is wide, and the quenching temperature can be in 1080 ~ 1180 ℃, Tempering temperature 520 ~ 600 Choose between ℃. When using more than W6Mo5CrV2 steel normal The temperature of quenching temperature is quenched and its tissue is For carbon content The lower martensite is even The distribution has granular undissolved carbide. Through the adjustment of heat treatment parameters, You can get different intensities, Tenacity, Wear-resistant fit to meet the performance requirements of different molds. 65 nb Heat treatment process of steel: 1080 ~ 1180 ℃ salt bath furnace heating ( 15 ~ 20 s/mm ) oil Quenching, 520 ~ 560 ℃ tempering 2 Time, hardness 57-63 HRC .
- ( 3 - 7 cr7mo2v2si (LD) steel LD Carbon steel, Cobalt content 65 nb Vanadium content Is higher. Vanadium can refine Grain, improve wear resistance. Therefore, its compressive, flexural strength and wear resistance are higher 65 nb Due to its good toughness and abrasion resistance, it is suitable to make all kinds of heavy-duty molds. LD Recommended heat treatment process of steel: 850 ℃ preheat, 1100 ~ 1150 ℃ Quenching; After the oil cooling 530 ~ 570 ℃ tempering 2 ~ 3 Times, each time 1 ~ 2 Hour, hardness 57-63 HRC .
- ( 4 - 5 cr4mo3simnval (012 al) steel 012 al The quality score is added to the steel 0.3 ~ 0.7% Aluminum, The goal is to refine the grain, Improving the impact toughness and thermal plasticity of steel, add Si In order to strengthen the matrix. 012 al Steel has high toughness, good comprehensive performance and strong versatility. It is cold and hot Mold steel. Its bending strength and deflection are higher W18Cr4V High - speed steel, in place of high - speed steel for moulds Less fracture occurs. Can be used as medium thickness sheet blanking die and All kinds of cold And heat as molds. 012 al Recommended heat treatment process of steel: 1090 ~ 1120 ℃ salt bath furnace heating ( 30 s/mm ) oil Quenching, 510 ℃ tempering 2 Time, Every time the oil cooling 2 hour , hardness 60 ~ 62 HRC .
- ( 5 - 6 cr4mo3ni2wv (CG - 2) steel CG - 2 The steel is added to the composition Ni It strengthens the matrix, Improved toughness and high temperature performance. At the same time increase Mo reduce W. , To reduce the segregation of carbide. CG - 2 Steel has high strength and toughness. In heat treatment to high hardness, good toughness is maintained. Better solution The reasonable cooperation of high hardness and toughness was determined. But the forging plastic is poor. The hardness is high after annealing. May be used in Heavy sheet blanking die and All kinds of cold And heat as molds.CG - 2 Heat treatment process of steel: Quenching temperature 1100 ~ 1140 ℃ heating ( The 20 s/mm - , Oil cooling , 540 ℃ tempering 2 Times, each time 2 Hour, air cold, hardness 60 ~ 62 HRC .
two . The selection and heat treatment requirements of drawing die material
Since the failure of the drawing die is mainly adhesive wear and abrasive wear, It is mainly adhesive wear. So choose The mold material must have high wear resistance and anti-adhesion properties. And enough intensity. Drawing depth material Consider the applicable pull Deep mold material You can refer to the table 11-1 . When choosing, should consider the drawing material Sheet thickness, Deep drawing parts Dimensions and size of production and so on.
(a) Light pull deep (pull deep sheet steel and Copper, Mold material for aluminum alloy The production volume is smaller than the hour, For a simple cylindrical shape Shallow deep drawing parts , Can choose T8 , T10 Steel; yeah For small and medium sized pieces with complex shapes, choose CrWMn , 9 mn2v . When batch production or production volume is larger, choose Cr12MoV . Hard alloy is used in bulk production Or steel cemented carbide .
(2) the material of the mold during the heavy load (deep drawing, deep drawing and thin drawing depth) Production batch is less than hour, optional T10 , CrWMn . When the production volume is larger, choose Cr12MoV As well as GM Steel. GM The strength and toughness of steel are higher than high Speed steel, Cr12MoV ; The anti-adhesion wear and abrasive wear ability are obviously better than that of the base steel Cr12MoV , At la Deep mold aspects Good application has been obtained. When making large batches, consider using hard alloy Or steel cemented carbide .
(3) drawing stainless steel, High nickel alloy steel Mold materials for heat resistant steel plates When drawing this kind of material, it is easy to produce adhesion and pull hair, the preferred mould material is aluminum bronze. Aluminum bronze can be used in the production of small batch for an hour. T10A (hard chromium plating, with hard chromium plating The layer should not be too thick to prevent it from peeling. Aluminum bronze is used in bulk production. Cr12MoV , Cr12Mo1V1 (surface nitriding). Hard alloy is used in bulk production.
(4) large scale Deep drawing parts And the car cover parts drawing die material Alloy cast iron or high strength nodular cast iron can be used. Ductile iron can be immersed in lubricating oil, SPAR Ink has a self-lubricating effect, which can effectively reduce the friction in the deep drawing, and the cost is low and easy to process. High strength ductile iron can be used to delay cooling martensite with dual medium delay. For higher intensity And toughness, hardness 55 ~ 58 HRC . Slowly preheat the mold before heating it 880 ~ 900 ℃, Warm the air before the cold, then salt water Quenched to 550 ℃ or so into Oil is cold, when mold temperature Down to 250 ℃ or so, 180 ~ 200 ℃ isothermal stay in hot oil 2 ~ 3 Then drop the oil temperature again 170 About ℃ isothermal 5 to 7 At last, the air is cold.