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China Development and Reform Commission: as soon as possible to implement the implementation of mixed pilot program
Recently, the China National Development and Reform Commission held a special meeting on reform, the meeting pointed out that in accordance with the sound management, strengthen incentives, highlight the main business, improve efficiency requirements, focus on mixed ownership reform pilot, as soon as possible to implement the pilot program in power, oil, , Iron and steel, civil aviation, telecommunications, military, iron and steel metallurgy, high-tech materials applications (carbide materials have been super-hard materials R & D applications) and other areas of substantive steps to form a number of typical cases, the formation of replication can be extended to experience.
Development and Reform Commission stressed that to grasp the progress, inverted schedule, and strive to do 5,6 months of all the reform program reported that the implementation of the party before the implementation of the nineteenth. Insiders pointed out that nearly two months, electricity, oil and gas, railways, military, carbide products and other monopoly areas of state-owned enterprises will be a comprehensive speed change, and the Development and Reform Commission clear six central enterprises mixed pilot program is expected to speed up approval recently. With the monopoly of the central enterprises to take the lead in the first issue, will "point to the surface" to drive other key areas of state-owned enterprises mixed, and ultimately spread to the industry.
China Southern Airlines disclosed that, as of now, the company has agreed with some of the core elements of potential strategic cooperation with US Airways, including: the company issued to the US Airlines H shares; plans to carry out code sharing with the US Airways, the transport agreement and a series of business Cooperation. Means that the field of civil aviation will be further improved. Prior to this, China Eastern Airlines has introduced Delta Airlines and Ctrip into a strategic partner, and has long been cross-owned shares with Hong Kong Cathay Pacific Airways, announced the Lufthansa Airways Group signed a joint venture agreement.
The field of telecommunications is also in the forefront of the mix. China Telecom Chairman, CEO recently announced in the company's 2016 fiscal year performance, China Telecom Group level has not yet been mixed ownership reform, is studying the level of change at the subsidiary level, including the introduction of Internet companies, including various types of shareholders are Have an open attitude.
In addition, oil, military and other areas of the mixed correction is actively promoting. China Petroleum President recently in the 2016 annual performance conference that the company will be in accordance with national requirements to promote the reform. China Ordnance Equipment Group has formulated the pilot scheme of mixed ownership reform of military enterprises, identified four pilot units and implemented pilot stocks in listed companies in Changan Automobile.
Modern manufacturing industry on the carbide die made high demand
With the rapid development of modern manufacturing and the advent of a variety of new and difficult processing materials,cemented carbide mold products and the quality and performance of the increasingly demanding requirements. For WC-based cemented carbide, ultrafine grains (average grain size 200-500 nanometers) and nanocrystals (average grain size) are compared to conventional coarse grains (typically mean grain size 13 microns) Size 200 nanometer or less) Carbide with high hardness, high strength and excellent wear resistance and fracture strength, high efficiency, high precision drilling, cutting, milling and other high-end processing technology indispensable important material.
From the late 1990s to the beginning of this century, nano-cemented carbide materials emerged in a variety of new methods. In recent years, the development of nano-structure, mechanical properties of the fine characterization and comparative analysis, and then in recent years, ultra-fine nano-cement alloy large-scale preparation and industrial applications to become a high international attention, reflecting the frontier competitiveness of research and development focus, during which experienced The evolution of many of the preparation methods of nanometer cemented carbide. Commonly known as sol-gel / coprecipitation, plasma, etc., they are mainly limited to the laboratory micro-synthesis of nano-WC powder; discharge plasma sintering, ultra-high pressure consolidation is limited to the laboratory to prepare a simple shape and three-dimensional small Nano-polycrystalline materials; spray conversion method can be batch synthesis of nano-WC powder; low-pressure sintering can achieve high-performance carbide production scale. However, the complicated operation steps of spray conversion method, high process cost and harsh control precision greatly limit the application of this technology in the preparation of nano-WC powder in China. In the low-pressure sintered cemented carbide, Quality toughness, strength and other performance indicators were significantly lower than the international composition of the ultra-fine crystalline carbide high-end products.
The number of patent applications in China is not high license utilization rate is only 2%
To further promote the upgrading of economic industries, the state put forward the supply side of the reform program, efforts to improve the quality and efficiency of the supply system. Product quality depends largely on the level of product development, innovation, and reflected in the brand awareness and other factors, so the supply side of the structural reform to achieve a comprehensive upgrade product quality and intellectual property system is closely related. However, the Academy of Social Sciences recently released the "rule of law blue book (2017)" disclosure, the current Chinese product supply is not the overall quality is not high, the lack of innovation. China's intellectual property rights are still low quality, inadequate protection and protection costs are too high and other issues, seriously hampered the enterprise innovation and product quality improvement. Therefore, it is necessary to further improve the intellectual property system, to promote the realization of the purpose of supply side reform.
Cemented carbide products manufacturers to apply for the number of patents is also increasing year by year, but often the actual utilization rate is less than 10% of the total application.
R & D investment of more than 5 million enterprises accounted for only 4.1%
According to the Blue Book of the rule of law, through the survey of the average investment of more than 7,000 enterprises, it is found that the total investment of R & D funds is less than 100 million yuan (67%), accounting for only 4.1% of the enterprises invested more than 5 million yuan. The enterprise's patent research and development cycle survey found that enterprise research and development cycle of 1 year and below accounted for 23.2%, 1 year to 2 years accounted for 44.1%, totaling 67.3%; and really willing to over 3 years of long-term research and development accounted for 6.2 %. This shows that the vast majority of enterprises do not want to spend too long to engage in research and development activities.
Blue Book pointed out that technological innovation determines the core competitiveness of enterprises, technological innovation, although the need for capital investment, but also a huge return, companies do not want to invest more money in the field of technological innovation is the need to reflect and improve the problem. At the same time, a country or enterprise's technological innovation ability to a certain extent, determines the product supply capacity, China's ongoing supply side of the structural reform, it is precisely to find ways to further enhance the core technology capabilities of Chinese enterprises, and enhance Its brand credibility degree. Therefore, to further improve the intellectual property protection system, help supply side reform has become an important task in the moment.
The number of patent applications is not high
According to the data released by the State Intellectual Property Office in 2015, the China Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) handled 1102,000 patent applications for the year, up 18.7 percent year on year, ranking the first in the world for five consecutive years, according to the data released by the State Intellectual Property Office in 2015. If only from the number of patent applications, the Chinese enterprise's innovation capacity seems to be ranked "the world's first", but from the quality of patent applications, the fact is not the case, whether in consumer goods or high-tech products , Chinese enterprises, innovation and supply capacity and international counterparts are still compared to a certain gap. The innovation capacity of Chinese enterprises is not directly proportional to the number of patent applications that continue to grow.
However, the rule of law Blue Book disclosure, companies apply for a large number of patents and not really used to improve product quality. According to the provisions of the Chinese Patent Law, China's invention patent protection period of 20 years, utility model and design patent protection period of 10 years. However, in the vast majority of cases, the patentee will give up the patent halfway. "China's annual patent annual report in 2014," shows that the average duration of domestic invention patents for 3.8 years, utility model patents for 3.5 years, design patents for 3.2 years; and really achieve the longest maintenance of the invention only 0.02%, utility model Only 1.1%, only 0.5% of the design. The above data show that the vast majority of Chinese patent applications are not really put into use.
In addition, the patent licensing implementation rate can also reflect the actual use of patents. From 2012 to 2014, the country granted 2787,707 domestic patents, signed a patent license contract is only 56067, accounting for only 2% of the authorized patent ratio. The data also reflects that the vast majority of patents are not really put into use.
Therefore, the enterprise application for patent and enterprise product supply ability can not directly draw the equal sign. In fact, the existing system in the evaluation of government or enterprise science and technology innovation ability is still an important indicator of patent, such as: enterprises to enjoy a lot of preferential welfare policy requires patents; enterprises to reduce taxes, apply for high-tech enterprise certification requires a patent index requirements; Local and unit of the introduction of talent, talent assessment also need patents. Obviously, the patent application can meet a wide range of interests. In addition, many places in order to create a large number of patent applications, through the so-called incentives for enterprises to apply for patents issued bonuses, more lead to the proliferation of patent applications.
Seven adults believe that the level of protection of intellectual property need to be strengthened
According to the rule of law blue book, "China's intellectual property protection level evaluation" as the title, the 8938 people were investigated, on the whole, 67% of the respondents believe that China's intellectual property protection level needs to be gradually strengthened, and even 24.4% Investigators believe that the need for substantial strengthening, only 7.2% of the respondents believe that more appropriate. From the survey results is not difficult to see that the level of China's intellectual property protection to be further improved.
In fact, what kind of choice is made by the enterprise - is committed to their own innovation or imitation and plagiarism - to a large extent depends on the analysis of costs and benefits.
For a long time, China's intellectual property protection level is too low, resulting in many enterprises in the product supply process is not willing to innovate, more willing to imitate and plagiarism. In the patent infringement case damages litigation, 97.25% of the cases apply "statutory compensation" standard, the average amount of compensation is only 79,600 yuan. In contrast, the United States in 2007 - 2012, the average amount of patent litigation as high as 29.4 million yuan. In the case of trademark infringement, the court awarded an average amount of 6.2 million yuan, which is long-term trademark operators to maintain the brand spent the same great effort is not proportional. The amount of compensation for intellectual property infringement is too low to contribute to the formation of this situation: innovators in the pursuit of product quality, the need to spend a lot of money, effort to make a difference, infringers only need to pay a lower cost can "plagiarism" Therefore, in China, the supply of various types of products in the imitation of heavy marks, lack of innovation, the high number of intellectual property disputes.
It is recommended that a comprehensive system of punitive damages be introduced Supply side reform and intellectual property are inseparable, improve the intellectual property system, in order to achieve the real meaning of the supply side of the reform. Based on the above-mentioned problems of the above-mentioned intellectual property system, the Blue Book proposes to improve the evaluation system of intellectual property rights and realize the transformation of the supply side from heavy quantity to heavy quality. In the process of adjusting the patent quality evaluation system, the index of the original patent should be adjusted to the actual contribution value of the patent to enhance the supply of the product. Whether it is related to high-tech enterprises that, or is related to high-tech enterprise tax relief, or patent application fee waiver, and enterprise inventions related incentives, it is necessary to cancel the original provisions on the patent quantification, and whether the actual use of patents , The use of results, the actual contribution to the product supply value as an evaluation index. In a series of documents requiring the submission of the enterprise, in addition to the patent certificate is necessary to submit a patent for the supply of products to play a practical role in the supporting documents. The Blue Book also suggests increasing the cost of intellectual property infringement and enabling the supply side to transition from imitation to innovation. Although the patent law in 2008 revised the statutory compensation limit from 500,000 yuan to 100 million, but the existing compensation system for intellectual property infringement still do not have enough deterrence, innovation is difficult to play an effective protection. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce a comprehensive system of "punitive damages" in intellectual property law. At the same time, reduce the cost of intellectual property protection for the supply side to continue to provide legal protection. It is necessary to make a clear specification of the patent application period in order to give the applicant a clear expectation and reduce the costs and risks associated with the expected uncertainty. Compared with other types, the invention patent for the substantive review, the most complex process. It is necessary for the patent law to specify the deadline for the substantive examination and the deadline for the review of the results, and if it involves the submission of material for correction, it is also necessary to specify the time for correction. At the same time, for the utility model and design patent review results to make a clear specification. In this way, enterprises in the process of technological upgrading and transformation of the future risks will have a relatively clear expectations and assessment, to minimize the costs of intellectual property applications and risks.
German scientists developed the world's second most hard transparent ceramic material
Researchers at the German Electronic Synchrotron Research Center (DESY) have developed the world's second largest transparent ceramic material, cubic silicon nitride (c-Si3N4), following diamonds. C-Si3N4 is also the second diamond and cubic boron nitride, the world's third highest hardness of the ceramic material, but boron nitride does not have a transparent nature, and the diamond can withstand the maximum temperature of 750 ℃, and Germany developed c -Si3N4 transparent ceramic material can withstand the maximum temperature of 1400 ℃, showing excellent high temperature performance, not only that, because Si and N elements of the chemical bond is very strong, c-Si3N4 chemical properties are extremely stable, with good environmental stability Sex. So the future can be used in extreme parts of the structure, such as engines, ball bearing parts and cutting tools.
Under atmospheric conditions, the silicon nitride crystal structure is a hexagonal structure, after sintering is opaque. Under the condition of 130,000 times the atmospheric pressure, the hexagonal structure of silicon nitride is transformed into cubic symmetrical structure, also known as "spinel structure", and has the same structure as MgAl2O4 transparent ceramic.
DESY scientists in the large-capacity compression device (LVP) on the hexagonal silicon nitride after applying high temperature and pressure, in the pressure of 15.6Gpa (15.6 million times the atmospheric pressure) and 1800 ℃ under the conditions of the preparation of a diameter of 2 mm c-Si3N4 transparent ceramic round Film, is the first transparent sample of silicon nitride ceramics.
The results of XRD crystal structure analysis of c-Si3N4 show that the prepared c-Si3N4 material is completely transformed into cubic phase. DESY scientists said that the hexagonal structure of silicon nitride material to the cubic structure of the transition and carbon material conversion is similar to the carbon material at room temperature and pressure for the hexagonal structure, the application of high temperature and pressure into transparent diamond, but also for the cubic structure.
The transparency of silicon nitride is related to its internal grain boundaries, and the voids in the grain boundaries will decrease their transparency. But experts at the University of Tokyo, Japan, said that for the formation of high-pressure materials, the grain boundary is generally very thin, some vacancies such as oxygen vacancies will not gather around the grain boundary, but distributed throughout the material range, so the Its transparency has little effect.
C-Si3N4 material is the hardest and most intense transparent spinel ceramic material, which will play an important role in the future superhard, high strength and high temperature resistant structure. C-Si3N4 materials with diameters of 1 to 5 mm are relatively easy to produce c-Si3N4 materials with diameters of more than 1 cm, although they are easy to obtain and cost are low, but the production of large area c-Si3N4 materials requires greater pressure. Materials will face greater challenges.